Lesson 3

Pronoun {d}
The two primary uses of the pronoun {d} are: (1) to introduce a genitive clause; and (2) to introduce a relative clause. The form of the pronoun varies according to gender and number but there is a high degree of overlap. The masculine singular form probably declines according to case in the singular dū, dī, dā. The feminine singular form does not: dāti. The plural form is probably the same in both genders and in all grammatical cases: dū(ti). The feminine singular and all plural forms occur with and without a final –t.

masc. singular
fem. singular
plural
nominative
d, /dū/
d(t), dā(ti)
d(t), dū(ti)
genitive
d, /dī/
d(t), dā(ti)
d(t), dū(ti)
accusative
d, /dā/
d(t), dā(ti)
d(t), dū(ti)
The genitive is most commonly expressed through the construct-genitive phrase, bnš mlk, ‘a man of the king’. One never finds bnš d mlk meaning ‘a man of the king’. However, in certain cases, the pronoun {d} expresses a genitive relationship and specifies a descriptive aspect of the preceding noun: ı͗l d pı͗d, ‘the benevolent god’ literally, ‘the god of benevolence’; ḫpn d ı͗qnı͗, ‘a blue cloak’ literally, ‘a cloak of lapis color’. Notice that the noun following the pronoun is in the genitive case, /dū ʾiqnaʾi/.
When introducing a relative clause, the pronoun modifies a preceding word and means ‘who’, ‘which’, ‘that’, etc. The pronoun can serve as the subject or object of the phrase.
Subject of an adverbial predicate: bnšm dt b bt mlk, ‘men who are in the royal palace’
Subject of a verbal predicate: ʿbdm dt lqḥ ddm, ‘servants who have taken dd-measures of rations’
Object of a verb: dd d lqḥ ʿbd, ‘a measure of rations that the servant took’


Independent Personal Pronouns

singular
dual
plural
1 c
{a͗nk} /ʿanāku/, I
and {a͗n} /ʾanā/
unattested
unattested
2m
{a͗t} /ʾatta/, you
{a͗tm} /ʾattumā/, you
{a͗tm}, /ʔattumu/, you
2f
{a͗t} /ʾatti/, you
unattested
unattested
3m
{hw} /huwa/, he/it
{hm} /humā/, they
{hm} /humu/, they
3f
{hy} /hiya/, she/it
unattested
{hn} /hunu/, they
These pronouns are the subject of the sentence. They are the nominative form of the independent pronoun. There is a set of pronouns for the accusative, but they are not well attested. The attested forms are as follows.

singular
dual
plural
3m
{hwt} /huwati/, him/it
{hmt} /humāti/, them
{hmt} /humati/, them
3f
{hyt} /hiyati/, her/it



Conjunctions
Conjunctions are words that connect or coordinate words, clauses, and phrases. Here are a few of the most common Ugaritic conjunctions.

u͗, /ʾô/, ‘or’
u͗, /ʾū/, ‘and’
ı͗m, /ʾimma/, ‘or ; if’
hm, /himma/, ‘either/or; if’
w, /wa/, ‘and, but, or’
k, /kī/, ‘because, when, if’
p, /pa/, ‘and’
pn, /pana/, ‘lest’


Nominal Predicate
The nominal predicate forms a sentence with the juxtaposition of nouns or pronouns.
Adverbial predicate: klb b šd, ‘the dog is in the field’
Nominal predicate: a͗b a͗t, ‘you are the father’
Word order is essentially free in the nominal predicate. However, certain nuances may exist. The syntax INDEPENDENT PRONOUN + NOUN may represent an identifying clause: hw mlk, 'he (not someone else) is the king'. The syntax NOUN + INDEPENDENT PRONOUN may represent a classifying clause: mlk hw, 'he is the king (not something else)'.
A construct phrase can stand as the subject or the predicate of the nonverbal nominal phrase.
šd ı͗lm šd a͗ṯrt w rḥmy, ‘the field of the two gods is the field of ʔAṯiratu-wa-Raḥmay’
šd šd ı͗lm, ‘the field is the field of the gods’

Vocabulary
Memorize the independent pronouns and conjunctions.

Nouns:
u͗m, /ʾummu/, ‘mother’ (feminine; plural u͗mht, /ʾummahātu/)
ı͗qnu͗, /ʾiqnaʾu/, ‘lapis-lazuli; a blue color (often used in textile manufacturing)’
a͗rṣ, /ʾarṣu/, ‘land, earth, ground’ (feminine)
d(t), the determinative-relative pronoun
dd, /dūdu/, ‘a dry-measure of rations (actually the measure, not the grain)’
ksp, /kaspu/, ‘silver’
mrkbt, /markabatu/, ‘chariot’
ʿlm, /ʿālamu/, ‘eternity, perpetuity; an undefined period of time’
ʿn, /ʿênu/, ‘spring; eye’
ʿr, /ʿêru/, ‘city’
pʿn, /paʿnu/, ‘foot’ (frequently occurs in the dual)
s̀s̀w (also ssw), /s̀ūs̀awu/, ‘horse’
s̀s̀wt, /s̀ūs̀awatu/, ‘mare’

Proper nouns:
u͗grt, /ʾugārit/, ‘Ugarit (the city and the kingdom)’
tbq (also spelled ṭbq), /tibaqu/, the name of a city in the kingdom of Ugarit, located just east of the city of Ugarit.
ḫḏmrt, /ḫiḏmiratu/, a personal name (also occurs as ḫḏmrd)
krt, /kirta/, Kirta, the main character in an epic


Exercises
A. Vocalize and Translate
1. ʿnm dt ı͗qnı͗
2. kdm dt ksp
3. ʿbd d ʿlm
4. ʿbdm dt b šd
5. a͗lp mlk dt b bth
6. a͗lp mlk b bth
7. a͗nyt mlk dt b ym
8. bnšm dt bd ḫḏmrt
9. šmn d b kdm
10. a͗nyt mlkt w bnšm dt bh

B. Vocalize and translate (phrases from 92.2010)
1. l ḫḏmrt bʿly
2. tḥm . a͗nntn ʿbdk (a͗nntn is a proper name)
3. l pʿn . bʿly