Lesson 5

G-stem Suffix Conjugation Verb
The form of the G-stem suffix conjugation verb begins with the stem QTL- followed by the appropriate pronominal element for person, number, and gender. The verbal stem contains two short vowels, usually two short a-vowels: QaTaL-.

singular
dual
plural
3m
ktb, /kataba/, ‘he wrote’
ktb, /katabā/
ktb, /katabū/
3f
ktbt, /katabat/, ‘she wrote’
ktbt, /katabtā/
ktb, /katabā/
2m
ktbt, /katabta/, ‘you wrote’
ktbtm, /katabtumā/
ktbtm, /katabtuma/
2f
ktbt, /katabti/, ‘you wrote’

ktbtn, /katabtina/
1c
ktbt, /katabtu/, ‘I wrote’
ktbny, /katabnāyā/
ktbn, /katabnū/
Notice the orthographic overlap, particularly in the forms ktb and ktbt. Context and syntax will help determine the best interpretation of a given verb; however, in some cases ambiguity will remain. The dual verb vocalizations are hypothetical.
The suffix conjugation expresses the verbal notion as complete.

trḫ . a͗ṯt . w tbʿt, /taraḫa ʾaṯṯata wa tabaʿat/, ‘he marries a woman, but she departs’
G SC 3ms, taraḫa, √T-R-Ḫ
G SC 3fs, tabaʿat, √T-B-ʿ

mḫšt . mdd . ı͗l, /maḫaštu mōdada ʾili/, ‘I struck the beloved of ʾIlu’
G SC 1cs, maḫaštu, √M-Ḫ-Ṣ (the consonant /ṣ/ changes to /šš/ before /t/ here)

The notion of complete versus incomplete is different than the notion of past versus present/future. The notion of completion is called verbal aspect. The two basic verbal aspects are perfective (complete action) and imperfective (incomplete action). The idea of past, present and future is generally described as grammatical tense.

Indefinite Pronouns
impersonal, 'whatever': {mhk(m)}, /mahaka(ma)/, {mnm}, /mannama/ < */mahnama/
personal, ‘whoever’: {mn(km)}, /mīnaka(ma)/; {mnn}, /mīnana/

Cardinal Numbers 1-10 and tens

masculine
feminine
tens
1
a͗ḥd, /ʾaḥḥadu/
a͗ḥt, /ʾaḥattu/

2
ṯn, /ṯinâ/
ṯt, /ṯittâ/
(see the dual of ‘10’)
3
ṯlṯ, /ṯalāṯu/
ṯlṯt, /ṯalāṯatu/
30 ṯlṯm, /ṯalāṯūma/
4
a͗rbʿ, /ʾarbaʿu/
a͗rbʿt, /ʾarbaʿ(a)tu/
40 a͗rbʿm, /ʾarbaʿūma/
5
ḫmš, /ḫamišu/
ḫmšt, /ḫam(i)šatu/
50 ḫmšm, /ḫamišūma/
6
ṯṯ, /ṯiṯṯu/ (< ṯidṯu)
ṯṯt, /ṯiṯṯatu/
60 ṯṯm, /ṯiṯṯūma/
7
šbʿ, /šabʿu/
šbʿt, /šabʿatu/
70 šbʿm, /šabʿūma/
8
ṯmn, /ṯamānû/
ṯmnt, /ṯamānatu/
80 ṯmnym, /ṯamāniyūma/
9
tšʿ, /tišʿu/
tšʿt, /tišʿatu/
90 tšʿm, /tišʿūma/
10
ʿšr(h), /ʿašru/ and /ʿašrih/
ʿšrt, /ʿaš(a)ratu/
20 ʿšrm, /ʿašrāma/ (dual)
In compound numbers, there is no feminine in the ‘tens’ position, only in the ‘ones’ position. For example, the feminine form of 36 is ṯlṯm ṯṯt. Notice that ‘thirty’ is masculine but ‘six’ is feminine.

Vocabulary

Verbs:
tbʿ, ‘to depart’
ša͗l, ‘to ask (about), request’
yṣʾ, ‘to go out’
grš, ‘to drive out, expel’
dbḥ, ‘to sacrifice, slaughter’
hlk, ‘to go’ (in the sense of walk/march)
ḥrš, ‘to make’
Nouns:
gdlt, /gadulatu/, ‘cow’
dqt, /daqqatu/, ‘ewe’
ynt, /yônatu/, ‘dove’
kbd, /kabidu/, ‘liver’
mtnt, /matunatu/, ‘kidney, loin’
pnm, /panûma/, ‘face’ (only plural)
ṯʿ, /ṯaʿû/, a type of sacrifice
Proper Nouns:
ʿmṯtmr bn nqmpʿ, ‘ʿAmmiṯtamru II (Binu-Niqmêpaʿ)’, king of Ugarit from roughly 1260-1235 BCE, /ʿammiṯtamru binu niqmêpaʿ/, (lit. the divine uncle has protected’ < ʿammīyiḏtamiru)
ʿbdmlk, /ʿbdimilku/, ‘ʿAbdimilku’ (lit. servant of Milku)


Exercises
A. Vocalize and Translate
1. mn dbḥ ynt
2. a͗nk dbḥt gdlt l bʿl
3. ḥrš bnš mlk ṯlṯ mrkbt
4. ʿmṯtmr bn nqmpʿ hlk l ṭbq
5. ša͗lny bʿl šlmk
6. gršt ṯn ʿbdm k hnk ršʿm
7. ʿšrm mrkbt mlk tbʿ b ym hwt
8. tšʿ dqt b gt

B. Vocalize and Translate RS 92.2168:1-10
Notes to exercise 5B:
The prepositional phrase l pn, lit. ‘to the face of’, means ‘before (someone)', i.e., 'in (their) presence'. The noun pn is peculiar in that it is always in the dual, even in this prepositional phrase.
The verb ytn in line 5 is vocalized /yatana/, 'he gave'.
Lines 1-10 do not form a complete sentence.