Lesson 6

G-stem Infinitive
The form of the G-stem infinitive is QaTāL-. The infinitive is a verb that also behaves like a noun. It behaves like a verb because it communicates action or state of being. The infinitive behaves like a noun because it declines for case: nominative, genitive, or accusative. The infinitive does not decline for number or gender. Unlike the suffix verbal conjugation, the infinitive does not include a subject as part of the verbal form. Therefore, if the action expressed by a given infinitive requires a subject, the subject occurs as a noun or pronoun (either suffixal or independent).

Infinitival Clauses
The infinitive occurs frequently in subordinate clauses. In the following examples, the |preposition and infinitive| sequence is noted within vertical lines. The infinitive is in the genitive case because it follows a preposition. In two of the following examples the preposition b is augmented with the particle m. The particle does not change the meaning of the preposition.
|bm bkyh| w yšn, 'as he weeps, he falls asleep' (RS 2.[003]+ i 31)
|b dmʿh| nhmmt, ‘as he sheds tears, (there is) sleep’ (RS 2.[003]+ i 32)
|b ḥbqh| ḥmḥmt, ‘as he embraces (her), (there will be) pregnancy’ (RS 2.[004]+ i 40ʹ)
The infinitive can govern an accusative object or a genitive noun.
w yqrb |b ša͗l| krt, ‘He (ʾIlu) comes near asking Kirta…” (RS 2.[003]+ i 37-38)
|bm nšq| a͗ṯth w hrt, ‘as he kisses his wife, (there is) conception’ (RS 2.[004]+ i 39ʹ-40ʹ)
The infinitive also occurs in purpose clauses following the preposition {l}.
|l lḥm| |l šty| ṣḥtkm, ‘I called you to eat (and) to drink’

G-stem Participle
The form of the G-stem participle is QāTiL-. The participle is an adjectival form of the verb. As an adjective, it declines according to the nominal paradigm, for number, gender, and case. Like an adjective, the participle can be used as a noun, ‘the one who does/is X’.
active
singular
plural
masc.
a͗nḫ, /ʾāniḫu/, the one who groans
-ūma
fem.
-atu, -tu
-ātu
passive


masc.
lu͗k, /laʾūku/, the one who is sent
-ūma
fem.
-atu, -tu
-ātu

Cardinal Numbers 11-19

Short Form
Extended Form
Feminine Form
11
ʿšt ʿšr, /ʿaštê ʿašru/
ʿšt ʿšrh, /ʿaštê ʿašrih/
ʿšt ʿšrt, /ʿaštê ʿaš(a)ratu/
12
ṯṯtm, /ṯiṯṯatāma/
ṯn ʿšr, /tinâ ʿašru/
ṯn ʿšrh, /tinâ ʿašrih/
ṯt ʿšrt, /ṯittâ ʿaš(a)ratu/
13
ṯlṯ ʿšr, /ṯalāṯu ʿašru/
ṯlṯ ʿšrh, /ṯalāṯu ʿašrih/
ṯlṯt ʿšrt, /ṯalāṯatu ʿaš(a)ratu/
14
a͗rbʿ ʿšr, /ʾarbaʿu ʿašru/
a͗rbʿ ʿšrh, /ʾarbaʿu ʿašrih/
a͗rbʿt ʿšrt, /ʾarbaʿ(a)tu ʿaš(a)ratu/
15
ḫmš ʿšr, /ḫamišu ʿašru/
ḫmš ʿšrh, /ḫamišu ʿašrih/
ḫmšt ʿšrt, /ḫam(i)šatu ʿaš(a)ratu/
16
ṯṯ ʿšr, /ṯiṯṯu ʿašru/
ṯṯ ʿšrh, /ṯiṯṯu ʿašrih/
ṯṯt ʿšrt, /ṯiṯṯatu ʿaš(a)ratu/
17
šbʿ ʿšr, /šabʿu ʿašru/
šbʿ ʿšrh, /šabʿu ʿašrih/
šbʿt ʿšrt, /šabʿatu ʿaš(a)ratu/
18
ṯmn ʿšr, /ṯamānû ʿašru/
ṯmn ʿšrh, /ṯamānû ʿašrih/
ṯmnt ʿšrt, /ṯamānatu ʿaš(a)ratu/
19
tšʿ ʿšr, /tišʿu ʿašru/
tšʿ ʿšrh, /tišʿu ʿašrih/
tšʿt ʿšrt, /tišʿatu ʿaš(a)ratu/
Items numbering 3-10 usually occur in the plural. In many cases, when a noun is counted higher than 10, it occurs in the singular.
ḫmš kdm, /ḫamišu kaddūma/, ‘5 jars’
ḫmšm kd, /ḫamišūma kaddu/, ‘50 jars’

tgmr, kbd, and Higher Numbers
The common noun tgmr, /tagmaru/, is a term that appears frequently in economic texts to indicate a total or subtotal of counted items. The adverb kbd, /kubda/, is used in compound numbers. In many cases the translation is smoother when tgmr and kbd are left untranslated.
ḫmšm ṯmn kbd tgmr bnšm, /ḫamišūma ṯamānû kubda tagmaru bunušīma/, ’58 men’
tšʿm ṯṯ kbd, /tišʿūma ṯiṯṯu kubda/, ‘96’
ʿšrm ḫmš kbd, /ʿašrāma ḫamišu kubda/, ‘25’
ṯṯm ṯlṯ kbd, /ṯiṯṯūma ṯalāṯu kuba/, ‘63’

The syntax of kbd shows some variety.
TENS + ONES + kbd (tgmr)
tšʿm ṯṯ kbd mḏrġlm, ‘96 mḏrġl-guards’
ONES + kbd + TENS
ḫmš kbd a͗rbʿm [šu͗rt], ‘45 šu͗rt-items (possibly a type of dagger)’ (RS 9.453:12) NOTE: the word šu͗rt is uncertain in this line, but highly likely based on context.
ḫmš kbd a͗rbʿm dd a͗kl, ‘45 ration-measures of food’ (RS 17.285:3-4)
ṯmn kbd ṯṯm šmn, ‘68 (jars) of oil’ (RS 17.399:28-29)
a͗ḥd kbd a͗rbʿm b ḫzr lqḥ šʿrt, ‘41 (men) from among the auxiliary personnel take wool’ (RS 19.062)

HUNDREDS + TENS + kbd + ONES + kbd
mı͗tm ṯlṯm kbd a͗ḥd kbd, ‘231 (shekels of silver)’ (RS 20.009:13-14)
Special Use of kbd in the syntax: TENS + ITEM + kbd
ḫmšm kd kbd, ’51 jars’ (lit. 50 jars plus one) (RS 94.2392+:11)
Compound numbers can be created with the preposition lê, without the use of kubda.
ṯn l ʿšrm šmn, /ṯinâ lê ʿašrêma šamnu/, ’22 (jars of) oil’(RIH 83/11A+)
ṯmn l ṯlṯm ṣı͗n, /ṯamānû lê ṯalāṯīma ṣaʾnu/, ‘38 small flock animals (i.e. sheep/goats)’(RS 24.249:17)

When counting shekels (ṯql) of silver (ksp), feminine forms of the numbers are used, even though both ṯql and ksp are masculine nouns.
ṯṯt, /ṯiṯṯatu/, 6 (shekels of silver)
ṯmnt l ʿšrm, /ṯamānâtu lê ʿašrêma/, 28 (shekels of silver owed)
šbʿt ʿšrt, /šabʿatu ʿašratu/, 17 (shekels of silver)
Vocabulary
Verbs:
šmʿ, ‘to listen, to hear’
ptḥ, ‘to open’
Nouns:
mrʿ, /marʿû/, ‘pasture-land’
nḫl, /naḫlu/, ‘water-course’
npk, /napku/, ‘spring’
ʿps, /ʿupasu/, ‘boundary-stone’ (also ʕps̀)
ṣı͗n, /ṣaʾnu/, caprovid, i.e. sheep or goats, small flock/herd animals
ġr, /ġūru/, ‘mountain, hill’
tgmr, /tagmaru/, ‘total’
Adverb:
kbd, /kubda/, ‘plus, in total’ (used in counting; often not translated)


Exercises
A. Write the following compound numbers in transliteration
1. 34
2. 89
3. 45
4. 78
5. 56

B. Vocalize and Translate (these are incomplete sentences)
1. b ptḥh bth
2. b tbʿ ṣı͗n b šd
3. mlk b dbḥh ynt l bʿl
4. b ša͗l šmʿ rgm mlk
5. b ḥrš bnš mlk ṯṯ l tšʿm mrkbt

C. Vocalize and Translate RS 94.2168:11-15
Notes:
{ı͗hb} in line 11 is a suffix conjugation verb, /ʾihhaba/, ‘he loves, prefers’. The determinative/relative pronoun is the object. ʿAbdimilku is the subject.
{ytn} in line 13 is a prefix conjugation, /yatinu/, ‘(he) may give’