Nominal Declension


Case: nominative, genitive, accusative
Number: singular, dual, plural
Gender: masculine, feminine
Definiteness: not marked in Ugaritic (for the most part)
State: absolute, construct, pronominal

Comments:

The singular and plural feminine markers -t/-ātu are clearly shown in the singular and plural forms of the word for “daughter:” sg {bt}, battu, {bnt}, binātu.
There are some nouns, particularly those bearing a nominal suffix containing a long vowel (e.g., -ān, -īt) that have a diptotic singular system: -u nominative, -a oblique; c.f. (Liverani 1963, 131-160); and (Huehnergard 1987, 299).
Cf. (Huehnergard 1987, 298) who posits that the dual was /i/ and the plural was /a/.
As for the dual oblique, the more commonly encountered form /ê/ derives from the element /-ay-/. The primary element persist when followed by /-ya/. Cf. 1.19 iii 18 pʿny /paʿnayya/, “my feet.”
Pardee (2004a) accepts that Ugaritic may not have had a broken plural for qVtl base nouns.There is no separate case for vocative; oblique case may indicate vocative; cf. the lexical vocative markers {l} and {y}.Construct State: the noun in the construct state retains the appropriate case vowel: ksu͗ ṯbth, ‘the throne of his dwelling’ (nominative); ksı͗ mlkh, ‘his royal throne’ (genitive); Ugaritic exhibits loss of mimation in the masculine plural and dual (both genders).



Cases:

Nominative:
Subject of a predicate, either verbal or non-verbal
Predicate in a nominative predicate phrase

Genitive:
After a preposition (guruš yamma lê kussaʾihu, ‘drive Yammu from his throne’ [RS 3.367 iv 12ʹ])
Unmarked vocative
Various Usage:
Possession
Origin
Adjectival genitive, a͗ṯt ṣdqh, /ʾaṯṯata ṣidqihu/, ‘his rightful wife’ (RS 2.[003]+ i 12)
Subjective genitive, ‘the fear of children is the fear of monsters’
Objective genitive, ‘the fear of children is the fear of monsters’
Genitive of identification
Following the demonstrative/relative pronoun communicating the genitive, ḫpn d ı͗qnı͗, /ḫupanu dū ʾiqnaʾi/, ‘a ḫpn-garment of violet-blue’ (RS 15.082:1)

Accusative:
Direct object of a transitive verb
Unmarked adverbial phrase
Directional morpheme /-ha/ was attached directly to the accusative
Some names show a diptotic singular with /-a/ as oblique ending.
Adjectives are inflected like nouns and agree with their referent whether attributive or predicative; e.g. malku rabbu.

Unusual Nouns

bt and ı͗l have standard plurals as well as expanded plural forms bhtm and ı͗lhnm
a͗mt only has the plural with the “dummy” consonant a͗mht
kndwm may be the plural of knd
For a similar expansion, cf. nhmmt.
Some nouns have a diptotic system in the singular: nom /u/, oblique /a/ (Liverani 1963; Huehnergard 1987, 299).
a͗ḫ, ‘brother;’ singular with suffix 1cs (would plural forms be ʾaḫḫû-?); cf. (Pardee 2004b, 33-4; Tropper 2000, 51, 67, 176, 219, 338; van Soldt 1991, 403n9; Huehnergard 1987, 273).
Some forms show vowel assimilation, others show “historically correct” a.k.a. morpho-phonemic writings.


S
D
P
Nominative
absol.
constr./pron.
{u͗ḫ}, /ʾuḫû/; {a͗ḫy}, /ʾaḫûya/
{u͗ḫy}, /ʾuḫûya/
{a͗ḫm}, /ʾaḫāma/?
{a͗ḫm}, /ʾaḫḫūma/
Genitive
absol.
pronom.
{ı͗ḫy}, /ʾiḫîya/; {a͗ḫ}, /ʾaḫî/; {a͗ḫy}, /ʾaḫîya/
{ı͗ḫh}, /ʾiḫîhu/


Accusative
absol.
{a͗ḫy}, /ʾaḫâya/; {a͗ḫy}, /ʾaḫâya/

{a͗ḫym}, /ʾaḫḫîyama/ (1 c.s. + enclit.)