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Intro to Ugaritic Grammar
Grammar - Preface
Grammar - Lesson 01
Grammar - Lesson 02
Grammar - Lesson 03
Grammar - Lesson 04
Grammar - Lesson 05
Grammar - Lesson 06
Paradigms and Reference
Paradigms-G and Derived
Comp. Semitic Verb
Cardinal: m, f
Ordinal (qātil or qatīl?)
ʾaḥḥadu, ʾaḥḥattu, and ʿšty
ṯiṯṯu (< ṯidṯu), ṯiṯṯatu
ʿaš(a)ru, ʿaš(a)ratu, and ʿšrh
ṯn ʿšr(h), ṯiṯṯatāma
miʾtu (sg.) , miʾātu (pl.)
Cardinal numbers are nouns, ordinal numbers are adjectives.
Ugaritic does not follow chiastic concord.
Wesselius (1980, 449) may be oversimplifying: “Contrary to what has been thought in the past the distribution of the numeral ending on –t and the numeral without this ending is fairly simple in the administrative texts. The ending –t is virtually only and always used with shekels and is suffixed to the numbers 3-10 and to both parts of the numbers 13-19 (11 and 12 are expressed by the singular, resp. dual of ṯql together with ʿšrt, ‘10’, see note 4). If M. Heltzer is right and ṯnt ʿšrt 4.146:8 is not to be emended to ṯmnt ʿšrt ’18 (shekels)’, but to be interpreted as ’12 (shekels)” this would be another piece of evidence in favour of the artificiality of the use of –t (Usually, however, ‘12 shekels’ would be written ṯqlm kbd ʿšrt or ʿšrt ṯqlm kbd).
ṯn/ṯt: These forms constitute an isogloss with Akkadian šine against the other West Semitic languages (e.g., Hebrew šnayim).
ṯlṯ: Cf. the unusual form ṯlṯtm in RS 94.2184+:12, 13. It is unclear if this form is a technical noun referring to a group of three or something more mundane. It could just be the number, either the feminine form with the enclitic particle –m or the masculine form with two enclitic particles. Like ṯlṯtm, there is also ḫmštm (, the meaning of which is uncertain. See the previous note on ṯlṯtm.
ʿšrh: “The alternate form with –h found in the cardinals of the teens is not used only to modify feminine nouns as in Hebrew. Moreover, the presence of h in the Ugaritic spelling shows that the origin of the element was consonantal, though its form (i.e., the vowel[s] with which the consonant is associated) and its function are uncertain;” (Pardee 2004a).
ṯṯtm: Wesselius (1980, 449), “The explanation of these numerals as duals (meaning ‘12’ and ‘6’ respectively), although in itself not impossible, does not take into account that they are found both times in successive entries in a list.”
It seems that the adverbial element –ı͗d , ‘at this moment’, adds a multiplicative sense when affixed to numbers. Currently it is attested only suffixed to ‘two’ and ‘seven’ as ṯnı͗d and šbʿı͗d (or šbʿd). Cf. BH ʾāz.
Pardee says that number nouns 3-10 are usually followed by the plural. Larger number are usually followed by the singular, as in RS 15.015+:12-14, ṯiṯṯūma [lê] miʾti ṯalāṯu kubda [ta]˹g˺maru bunušu lê bi bêti malki, ‘163 is the total of the men at the palace.’ The key word is “usually.” RS 19.045 has 13 bnš and 19 bnšm; cf. Tropper (2000, §69.132 and 69.142).
11 ʿaštê ʿašru ḥarrāšu, ‘eleven workers’ (RS 15.022+ iii 7)
11h ʿaštê ʿašrih bunu[šū malki], ‘eleven men of the king’ (RS 19.016:52) [day? (RS 24.256:14), šamnu (RS 17.297:4)]
12 ṯṯtm ḫzr dt tbʿln b GN, ‘12 ḫzr-personnel who work in GN’ (RS 15.022+ iii 9-11) NOTE: the verb is plural even though the counted noun is grammatically singular
12h tinâ ʿašrih dudu, ‘twelve ration measures’ (RS 16.395:4) [ḫpnt (RS 18.055:3), šd (RS 18.138:6)]
13 ṯalāṯu ʿašru bunušu, ‘thirteen men’ (RS 19.045:2; cf. RS 15.015+:3 mrynm)
13h ṯalāṯu ʿašrih, ‘thirteen (jars of) wine’ (RS 16.179:3) [ʿgl (4.783:4)]
14 ʾarbaʿu ʿašru bunušu, ‘fourteen men’ (RS 19.045:5)
14h ʾarbaʿu ʿašrih šadû, ‘fourteen fields’ (RS 17.246:1); [šamnu (RS 17.297:1), dqt (RS 24.250+:20)]
15h ḫamišu ʿašrih šīrūma, ‘fifteen singers’ (RS 15.022+ iv 1) [mrkm! (RS 2.001:19), ṣṣ (RS 18.030:2), prs (RS 18.130:1), mlu͗n (RS 1.001:10)]
16h ṯiṯṯu ʿašrih yênu, ‘sixteen (jars) of wine’ (RS 17.285:5) [ḫrmṯt (RS 19.052:4), ḫzr? (RS 19.062:4)]
17h šaʿaratu šabʿu ʿašrih, ‘wool, seventeen (units)’ (RS 15.115:14)
18h ṯamānû ʿašrih MRYN, ‘eighteen Maryannu-personnel’ (RS 15.094:2) [mrkm! (RS 2.001:16), šamnu ḥṯbn (CAT 4.771:6)]
19 tišʿu ʿa[šru bunušūma], ‘nineteen men’ (RS 8.279:5)
19h tišʿu ʿašrih dudu, ‘nineteen ration-measures’ (RS 17.106:2) [day? (RS 24.291:1)]
213h miʾtāma ṯalāṯu ʿašrih kadbu, ‘213 (troops?)’ (CAT 4.777:5)
ONES + lê + TENS + (counted item)
tišʿu lê ʿašrêma [no noun follows], ‘twenty-nine (men of the king)’ (RS 15.032:3)
ṯamānû lê ʾarbaʿīma [no noun follows], ‘forty-eight (men of the king)’ (RS 15.032:5)
ṯiṯṯu lê ʿašrêma bunušū malki, ‘twenty-six men of the king’ (RS 19.016:49)
TENS + ONES + kbd (tgmr)
ḫamišūma kaddu = 50 kaddūma
ḫamišūma kaddu kubda = 51 kaddūma (RS 94.2392+)
OR ʿašrāma ʾaḥḥadu kubda ḫassanūma, ‘21 ḫsn’ (RS 15.015+:10)
ḫamišūma ṯiṯṯu kubda kaddu = 56 kaddūma
ḫamišūma ṯamānû kubda tagmaru bunušī malki, ‘fifty-eight total men of the king’ (RS 15.022+ ii 25-26)
tišʿūma ṯiṯṯu kubda maḏḏarġalūma, ‘ninety-six guards’ (RS 15.015+:9)
ʿašrāma ʾaḥdu kubda ḫassanūma, ‘twenty-one ḫsn’ (RS 15.015+:10)
tagmaru YṢḤīma ṯalāṯūma ʾaḥdu kubda bunušū malki, ‘total of yṣḥ-persons, thirty-one men of the king’ (RS 15.044 iv 33′-37′)
šabʿu miʾātu šaʿartu ḫamišūma kubda, ‘seven hundred fifty (shekels) of wool,’ (lit. seven hundred wool fifty total); (RS 15.115:2)
NEED A SECTION WITH TENS + ONES W/O KBD; CF. TROPPER §62.42
ONES + kbd + TENS
ḫamišu kubda ʾarbaʿūma [šaʾuratu], ‘45 daggers’ (RS 9.452)
ḫamišu kubda ʾarbaʿūma dūdu ʾaklu, ‘45 measures of food’ (RS 17.285)
ṯamānû kubda ṯiṯṯūma šamnu, ‘68 measures of oil’ (RS 17.399)
ʾaḥdu kubda ʾarbaʿūma bi ḫāziri laqaḥū šaʿrati, ‘41 among the auxiliary personnel have taken wool’ (RS 19.062:1-2).
HUNDREDS + TENS + kbd + ONES + kbd
miʾtāma ṯalāṯūma kubda / ʾaḥḥadu kubda, ‘231 (shekels of silver)’ (RS 20.009:13-14)
Cf. KTU 4.387:11f., 4.397:10f., 4.243:47, 50
bi ṯāliṯi šanati, ‘On the third (day) of the year,’ (RS 15.115:60) [nominalized adjective in construct]
ḫamiša ṯādiṯa yōma tiʾkalu ʾišatu bi bahatīma, ‘for a fifth and sixth day fire consumed in the houses’ (RS 2.+ vi 29-30) [again this is not the standard ordinal syntax]
maġdâ ṯādiṯi yaraḫīma, ‘nourishment for the sixth month’ (lit. sixth as to months) (RS 2.+ ii 31)
himma kabkabu yaqīlu bi ṯāliṯīma(?) yōmi malkuna […], ‘if a star falls on the thirtieth day, then the king…’ (RIH 78/14:14’)
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