G Paradigm


Number
Person/Gender
Suffix Conjugation
Prefix Conjugation
PC-Volitive
PC-Jussive
Imperative
Singular
3m
kataba
kabida
laʾuka
yaktubu
yimẓaʾa
yaktub


3f
katabat
taktubu

taktub


2m
katabta
taktubu

taktub
kutub(a)

2f
katabti
taktubī(na)

taktubī
kutubī

1c
katab(ā)tu
ʾaktubu
ʾiphâ
ʾaktub, ʾipha

Dual
3m
katabā(?)
yaktubā (na)
taktubā (na)

yaktubā or taktubā


3f
katabtā?
taktubā (na)

taktubā


2m
katabtumā
taktubā (na)

taktubā
kutubā

2f
-
-

-


1c
katabnāyā(?)
naktubā
ništâna (indic)

naktubā

Pluarl
3m
katabū
yaktubū (na) (only poetry); else taktubū (na)

yaktubū or taktubū


3f
katabā
taktub(ā)na(?)

taktubā


2m
katabtum(u)
taktubū(na)

taktubū
kutubū

2f
katabtin(n)a
taktubna

taktubna(?)
kutubā

1c
katabnū
naktubu
ništû (indic)

naktub
ništa (Ø-form)
ništâ (cohort)

- ktb is a very rare verbal root in Ugaritic.
- For the difference between the plural forms with –ū versus those with –ūna, Bordreuil and Pardee (Manual, 64) tentatively suggest that the long form is the indicative and the short form the jussive.

Derived Stems

3ms Forms

Verbal Stem
Suffix Conjugation
Prefix Conjugation
Function
G
QaTaLa (QaTuLa/QaTiLa)
yaQTuLu (yiQTaL-/yaQTiL-)
active, stative, motion
D
QiTTaLa
yaQaTTiLu
factitive
N
naQTaLa
yiQQaTiLu < *yinQaTilu
middle/passive
Š
šaQTiLa
yašaQTiLu
causative
L
QāLaLa
yaQāLiLu
intensive or factitive
R
QaLQaLa
yaQaLQiLu
factitive
tR/Rt
?
yQtLQL/ytQLQL
factitive-reflexive
Gp
QuTaLa
yuQTaLu
passive of G
Dp
QuTTiLa
yaQaTTaLu
passive of D
Šp
šuQTaLa
yušaQTaLu
passive of Š
Gt
ʾiQtaTiLa
yiQtaTiLu
middle/reflexive
tD
taQaTTaLa
yVtQaTTaLu
middle/reflexive
Št
ʾištaQTiLa
yištaQTiLu
middle/reflexive (lexicalized?)
*Dt




Comments:

D SC: cf. the forms {ı͗hb} and {ı͗hbt}; Huehnergard suggests vocalizing Ugaritic /qattila/ based on limited syllabic data; proto-Hebrew D perfect was either /qittal/ or /qittil/; Aramaic and Arabic have /qattala/. Bordreuil and Pardee suggest the following development: PS QaTTaLa (Arabic and Ethiopic) > QaTTiLa (Aramaic), but > QiTTaLa (Canaanite languages).
D PC: cf. RS 2.[003]+ ii 5 {a͗mı͗d} : /ʾamaʾʾida/, ‘I will multiply’.
Š PC: the prefix vowel is evident in the 1cs {a͗šhlk}, {a͗šld}, {a͗šʿrb}, and the theme vowel in the 3ms {yššı͗l} /yašašʾilu/, thus the pattern *yašaqtilu.
L PC: ya- is based on the PC 1cs {a͗rnn} (RS 15.134:6).
L-stem semantics: According to Pardee (review of Tropper UG, 279), the L-stem “appears to express roughly the semantics [of the D-stem] in the hollow roots but not in the geminate roots.” Bordreuil and Pardee (Manual, 44) explain that the L-stem is characterized by a “lengthened vowel after first radical and reduplicated second/third radical; intensive or factitive in function.”
Gp PC: cf. {u͗ša͗l}: /ʾušʾalu/, “I was (not) asked;” (RS 94.2284:8).
Gt PC: cf. (RS 3.367 iv 13′, 15′) {trtqṣ}, {yrtqṣ}; and UVST, 402.
tD PC: the likely evidence for the theme vowel is provided by {yšta͗l} /yištaʾʾalu/ < */yitšaʾʾalu/.
Dt-stem: Is there such a stem as Dt? Tropper (UG) doesn’t list one. Q: Why should there be Gt and Št and no Dt? A: Because “it would be unprecedented for a language to exhibit both tD and Dt as distinct conjugations” (UVST, 402).

Imperative-G


Singular
Dual
Plural
Masculine
QuTuL, QiTiL, Qi/aTiL
ʿarabāba (?)RS 2.[014]+ iii 9
QuTuLū, (-ā ??)
Feminine
QuTuLī

QuTuLā

Imperative—Derived Stems

N
ʾikkabid
Š
šakbid
D
kabbid
Št
*ʾištakbVd
Gt
ʾiktabVd

Participles G-Stem


Active
Singular
Plural
Masc
qātilu
-ūma
Fem
-atu, -tu, -ah(?)
-ātu
Stative


Masc
qatilu, qatulu
-ūma
Fem
-atu, -tu
-ātu
Passive


Masc
qatūlu
-ūma
Fem
-atu, -tu
-ātu
Comments:
G Ptc f.s.: cf. RS 2.[004]+ i 42 (CAT 1.17) {ylt}, /yālittu/ < *yālidtu; cf. RS 2.[003]+ iii 8 {ḥṭbh}, /ḥāṭibah/, “straw-inspectrix”
Stative: Pardee (2004, 307) argues that there were also two stative participles /katib-/ and /katub-/

Participles Derived Stems


Š
mšQTL, /mušaqtilu/
Št
mštQTL, /muštaqtilu/
D
mQTL, /muqattilu/
Dp
mQTL, /muqattalu/
N
nQTL, /niqtalu/
Comments:
N-stem: Of the Semitic languages, only Ugaritic, Phoenician and Hebrew have an N-stem participle without preformative {m}; cf. Arabic and Akkadian with preformative {m}, (Aramaic has no N stem).

Infinitives



Strong
II-w/y
G (common form?)
qatālu
qâmu
G (rare form?)
qitlu
qūmu?
D
quttalu
NA
N
naqtālu
NA
Š
šaqtilu
?
Comments:
N-stem: This would certainly have been the proto-Ugaritic form, but we cannot tell if it was also the standard Ugaritic form; or perhaps /niqtālu/.