Ugaritic Phonetics

Phonetic Inventory


Bilabial
Dental
Interdental
Sibilant
Palatal
Velar
Pharyngeal
Laryngeal
Alveolar
Lateral

Voiced
b
d

z
g
ġ
ʿ
ʾ



Unvoiced
p
t

s
k


h



Emphatic




q






Continuants
m


š




n
l, r, š

Also:
/m/ -- bilabial continuant
/n/ -- alveolar/lateral continuant
/l/ -- lateral continuant
/r/ -- apical or lateral continuant
/š/ -- sibilant or lateral continuant
/w/ -- semivowel
/y/ -- semivowel

Note:
Proto-Semitic /ḍ/ has become /ṣ/ in Ugaritic
Unlike Hebrew, Ugaritic writing does not distinguish /š/ from /ś/. {s̀} does not represent /ś/. There is no separate letter for /ś/.
Etymological /ẓ/ is sometimes preserved and sometimes not {nġr}.

Notable Phonetic Correspondences between Proto-Semitic and the West Semitic Languages

Proto-Sem
Ugaritic
Arabic
Hebrew
Aramaic
Examples



š
š/t
ṯlṯ/šlš, ‘three,’ ṯġr, ‘gate, guard’

ẓ/ġ


ṣ/ṭ
nġr/nṣr, ‘to guard’; ḥẓ ‘arrow;’ mẓʾ ‘find’; ʿẓm, ‘power, excellence’

ḏ/d

z
z/d
relative pronoun ḏ/ d; ḏrʿ/drʿ, ‘seed;’ ḏmr, ‘sing;’ nḏr/ndr, ‘vow’; ḏnb, ‘tail’; cf ḏhrt (Arabic zuhrat)
s1
š
s
š
š
šʾb, ‘to draw (liquid)’ Arabic saʾaba
s2
š
š
š
š/s
nšʾ, ‘to lift, raise, help up’ BH nśʾ
ṣ2
ṣ/ẓ


q/ʿ
ʾarṣ (ʾrḍ, ʾarq, ʾarʿ), ‘land;’ ṣq, ‘put pressure’; ṣmd, ‘yoke, team’





ʾaḫ, ‘brother’ BH ʾḥ.
γ
ġ
ġ
ʿ
ʿ
ṯġr, ‘gate, guard;’ ġzl, ‘spinner’





ḥẓ, ‘arrow,’ ḥṭb, ‘to cut wood’