Pronouns

Independent Nominative

Person/Gender
Singular
Dual
Plural
1c, I
{a͗nk} /ʾanāku/ {u͗nk?}
{a͗n} /ʾanā/


2m, you
{a͗t} /ʾatta/
{a͗tm} /ʾattumā/
{a͗tm}, /ʾattumu/
2f, you
{a͗t} /ʾatti/


3m, he/it
{hw} /huwa/
{hm} /humā/
{hm} /humu/
3f, she/it
{hy} /hiya/

{hn} /hunu/?

Independent Oblique Cases (attested forms only)

Person/Gender
Singular
Dual
Plural
3m, him
{hwt} /huwati/
{hmt} /humāti/
{hmt} /humati/
3f, her
{hyt} /hiyati/


Genitive Suffixes

Person/Gender
Singular
Dual
Plural
1c, my
{y} /-ya/, {ṭ} /-ī/ (< -uya)
{ny} /-nāyā?/
{n} /-nū/
2m, your
{k} /-ka/
{km} /-kumâ/
{km} /-kumū/u/
2f, your
{k} /-ki/
-
{kn} /-kun(n)ā/a/
3m, his
{h} /-hū/, {n} /-nnū/
{hm} /-humâ/
{hm} /-humū/u/
3f, her
{h} /-ha/, {n} /-na/
{hn} /-hun(n)ā/a/

Comments:

1cs: {y} is used for genitive and accusative /-iya/ and /-aya/; {ø} is used for nominative /-ī/ < /-uya/. This distribution differs from early Phoenician, where the suffix on nominative/accusative nouns is identical (i.e., orthographic –ø), -y only appearing in the genitive. E.g. {npš npš lı͗m thwt}, /napšī napšu…/, ‘my throat is the throat of the lion in the wasteland’; cf. Pardee (1997b, 265).

Accusative Suffix Pronouns

Person/Gender
Singular
Dual
Plural
1 c
{n} /-nī/
{ny} /-nayâ?/

2m
{k} /-kā/

{km} /-kumâ/
2f
{k} /-kī/


3m
{h} /-hū/,
{n} /-annu/
{nh} /-annahū/,
{nn} /-annannu/,
{nnn} /-annannannu/ (w/ engergics)

{hm} /-humâ/
3f
{h} /-ha/, {n}, {nh}, {nn}

- These pronouns occasionally carry dative force.

Determinative/Relative Pronoun

Orthographic Distribution

s
p
m
d
d, dt
f
d, dt
d, dt

Relative Pronoun Examples

· yatana šadâ . kuḏuġadali dī . šōtina . dā . bi šadî (RS 16.382:4-6)
o ‘he has given the field of PN whom he ordered to hand over that which is in the field…’
o as DIRECT OBJECT
· raʾšiyyūma . dūti . ʿarabū bi . bunušīhumu (RS 18.035)
o ‘The people of Raʾšu who provided surety for their personnel’
o as NOMINATIVE ATTRIBUTIVE
· bahatīya banêta dati . kaspi . hêkalêya . datima ḫuraṣi (RS 2.[008]+ vi 38)
o ‘You have built my houses which are silver, my temples which are gold.’
o as ACCUSATIVE ATTRIBUTIVE or DIRECT OBJECT
· ʾarbaʿu ʿašrih šadû wa kamsaku dū ʾiwrikalli (RS 17.246)
o ‘Fourteen and one-KMSK fields of ʾIwrikalli’
o as POSSESSIVE/GENITIVE
· ṯiryanū s̀us̀uwīma ṯiryanu ʾaḥḥadu dū bunušu (RS 15.083:5-6)
o Armor for horses, one set of armor for a man
o as POSSESSIVE/GENITIVE, note the use of the construct-genitive in the first half of the phrase and the use of the genitive-relative pronoun in the second, more complex, phrase. The armor for horses seems plural. In the second of these entries, the scribe uses the number a͗ḥd to disambiguate the grammatical number of ṯryn in the genitive. The insertion of the number necessitates the use of the genitive-relative pronoun.

Interrogative Pronouns

- Who? = {my}, {mn}, {mnm} /mī-/
- What? = {mh} /mah(a)/

Indefinite Pronouns

- impersonal: {mhk(m)}, /mahaka(ma)/, {mnm}, /mannama/ < */mahnama/
- personal: {mn(km)}, /mīnaka(ma)/; {mnn}, /mīnana/