Weak Roots

I-ʾ

Attested I-ʾ roots: ʾbd, ʾwd, ʾdm, ʾdn, ʾgg, ʾhb, ʾḫd, ʾḫr, ʾkl, ʾnš, ʾny, ʾpq, ʾpy, ʾr, ʾrk, ʾrš, ʾsr, ʾtw, ʾṯm, ʾṯr, ʾzr
G SC 3fp {a͗nš}: /ʾanišū/, ‘(her spine) goes weak’ (RS 2.[014]+ iii 35ʹ)
G PC 3ms short form preterite {yı͗ḫd}: /yaʾḫud/, ‘ʾIlu grasped (a cup in his hand)’ (CAT 1.17 i 35)
cf. N-stem {y˹a͗˺ḫd} in RS 9.453:28′ (CAT 4.44)
G PC 3ms {yu͗ḫd}: /yaʾuḫud-/ (secondary opening of the first syllable, plus vowel harmony); or /yuʾuḫud-/ [could be Gpass] (RS 96.2039:14) * this G PC vocalization may explain bh yō(ʾ)ḥēz: < yōʾḥōz < yuʾḥuz < yuʾuḥuz < yaʾuḥuz
G PC 3ms jussive {yı͗p}: /yaʾpi/, ‘he must bake,’ (RS 2.[003]+ ii 30)
G PC 3fs + enclitic {tı͗rkm}: /tiʾrak(u)ma/, ‘may (ʾIlu’s hand) stretch out’ (RS 2.002:33)
G PC 1cs {a͗rš}: /ʾārišu/, ‘I ask, request, demand’ (RS 94.5015:36′)
G PC 3cp {tu͗dn}: /taʾudunū/, ‘may they (not) hear’ (RS 92.2014:8)
G Imv fs {a͗rk}: /ʾarakī/, ‘stretch out (hand of ʾIlu)’ (RS 2.002:34)
G Imv ms {ı͗rš}
G Imv ms {ı͗ṯr}
G Imv ms {a͗t}
G Ptc {a͗nḫ}: /ʾāniḫu/, ‘the groaning one’ (RS 2.[004]+ i 17ʹ)
Gp Ptc {u͗zr}: /ʾuzūru/, ‘the one who is girded’ (RS 2.[004]+ i)
D SC 3ms {ı͗hb}: /ʾihhaba/, ‘he loves/d’ (RS 94.2168:11)
D PC 1cs(?) {a͗bd}: *ʾaʾabbid- > *ʾābbid- > /ʾabbid-/, ‘I will destroy’ (RS 3.367 iv 3′)
D PC 3ms {ya͗ḫd}: /yaʾaḫḫid-/, ‘15 bowls for the man of the Tuppanuru which he will take to ˹G˺Y˹NM˺ (CAT 4.44:27′-28′)
D PC 3ms {ya͗rš}: /yaʾarrišu/, ‘which ḪSWN does not request’ (RS 9.453:26’)
D PC 3ms {ya͗rš}: /yaʾarrišu/, ‘would he request’ (RS 2.[003]+ i 42)
D PC 3cp active transitive {ta͗ršn}: /taʾarrišūna/, ‘men of the king who will request ʿMSN’ (CAT 4.370:1-2)
alt: G PC 3cp /taʾarišūna/?; less likely N PC /tiʾʾarišūna/
D Imv ms {a͗bd}: /ʾabbida/, ‘destroy’ (RS 24.244:5)
Gt SC 3ms {ı͗tdb}: /ʾîtadiba/ (metathesis/error) < *ʾîtabida < *ʾiʾtabida, ‘he has perished’ √ʾ-B-D (RS 2.[003]+ i 8)
Gt PC 3ms {yı͗tsp}: /yiʾtasipu/, ‘(Reshef) gathers up (the fifth wife)’ (RS 2.[003]+ i 18)
Gt PC 3ms {yı͗tṯm}: /yiʾtaṯimu/, ‘he will owe’ (CAT 4.398:5)
Gt PC 3ms {yı͗tbd}: /yiʾtabidu/, ‘it has perished’ (RS 2.[003]+ i 24)
Gt PC 3mp {tı͗tṯmn}: /tiʾtaṯimūna/, ‘the will owe’ (CAT 4.398:2, 3, 12)
N PC 3ms {ya͗ḫd}: /yiʾʾaḫidu/, ‘he will take into his own possession’ (RS 9.453 [CAT 4.44]:28ʹ)
N PC 3ms preterite {ya͗dm}: /yiʾʾadim/, ‘he roughed himself’ (RS 2.[003]+ iii 52)
N PC 2ms {ta͗dm}: /tiʾʾadim(v)/, ‘rouge yourself’ (RS 2.[003]+ ii 9)
Š SC 3ms {šı͗sp}: /šaʾsipa/, ‘he has mustered’ (RS 94.5015:24′)

I-y/w

G SC 3ms {yr}: /yara/ < yarayu, ‘he casts’ √Y-R-Y (RS 2.002:38)
G SC 3md {yṯb}: /yaṯabā/, ‘they (the two gods) dwell’ (RS 2.002:29)
G SC 2ms {yrdt}: /yaradta/, ‘you descend’ (CAT 1.39:20) n.B without assimilation of -dt- to -tt-
G SC 3fd {ylt}: /yalattā/ < /yaladtā/, ‘(the two women) gave birth’ (RS 2.002:53, 60)
G PC 3ms {yšn}: /yîšan-/ < yiyšan- < yayšan- < yawšan < √WŠN (type 2)
G PC 3ms {ydʿ}: /yidaʿ/ (type 1)
G PC 3ms {ybl}: /yabilu/ < √ybl (cf Akk wabālum) (type 1) (RS 94.2965:22, 24)
G PC 3ms {yšn}: / yîšan(u)/ < √yšn (type 2) (RS 2.[003]+ i 31)
G PC 3ms {yrd}: /yarid(u)/ <Y/W-R-D (RS 2.[003]+ i 36)
G PC 3ms short (negative) volitive {yṣı͗}: /yaṣiʾ/, ‘do not let it go out’ (RS 94.2406:22, 38)
G PC 3ms, energic and suffixal {yblnh}: /yabilannaha/, ‘he carries it’ (RS 24.244:67)
G PC 3ms, energic and suffixal {ydʿnn}: /yidaʿannannu/, ‘he knows him’ (RS 24.258:7)
G PC 1cs {a͗bl}: /ʾabilu/ < */ʾawbilu/ (type 1), ‘I will bring’ (RS 2.[004] v 2)
G PC 1cs {a͗tn}: /ʾatinu/ < */ʾaytinu/ (type 1) (RS 2.[004] vi 17, 27; RS 94.5015:6, 7, 12)
G PC 1cs {a͗ṯb}: /ʾaṯib-/ < */ʾayṯib-/ <*/ʾawṯib-/ (type 1) [Akk. has wašābu with I-w]
G PC 1cs {a͗rṯ}: /ʾariṯ-/ (contra BH yīyraš) (type 1 in UG; type 2 in BH)
G PC 1cs {a͗rd}: /ʾarid-/, ‘I descend’ √Y-R-D (RS 3.367 iii 20)
G PC 1cs {ı͗dʿ}: /ʾidaʿ-/, ‘I know’ √Y-D-ʿ (RS 2.[009]:8)
G PC 3md {yṯb}: /yaṯibā/ (type 1) (RS 2.[003]+ vi 40)
G PC 3fd {tldn}: /talidāna/ (RS 2.002:52)
G PC 3mp {tdʿ}: /tidaʿū/ (type 1) (RS 2.[014]+ iii 26ʹ, 27ʹ)
G Imv ms {dʿ}: /daʿ/, ‘know!’ (RS 19.011:13; RS 94.2406:10)
G Imv ms {ydy} : /yidiya/, ‘throw down’ (RS 24.244:5)
G Imv fs {bl}: /bilī/, ‘take (a message)’ Y-B-L (RS 24.244:2 et passim)
G Ptc fs {ylt}: /yālittu/ < /yālidtu/, ‘she who will bear’ (RS 2.[004]+ i 41ʹ)
Gt PC 1cs {ı͗trṯ }: /ʾîtariṯu/, ‘I inherited/confiscated’ √Y-R-Ṯ (RS 2.[014]+ iii 47ʹ)
D PC 3cd {twtḥ}: /tawattiḥā/, ‘let (your legs) hurry’ √W-T-Ḥ (RS 2.[014]+ iii 20)
D Inf {wld}: /wulladu/ [or G walādu] (RS 2.[003]+ iii 48)
Š SC 3ms {ṯṯb}: /ṯōṯib-/ < */šawṯib-/, √wṯb, ‘he seated him’ (??)
Š SC 3ms {š˹tn˺}: /šōtina/ or /šattina/(?) < */šaytina/ (RS 16.382:6)
Š SC 1cs {štnt}: /šatinātu/, ‘I made (them) pay,’ (RS 94.2479:21)
Š PC 1cs {a͗šld}: /ʾašōlidu/, ‘I have begot’ √W-L-D (RS 2.002:65)
Š PC 1cs jussive {a͗šṣı͗}: /ʾašōṣiʾ/ < √yṣʾ, ‘I will cause to go forth’ (RS 3.367 iv 2′)
Š Imv m.s. + expanded form of the 3ms object suffix built on the long energic ending -nna and the 3ms suffix -hu {štnn˹h˺}: /šattinannahu/, ‘return him’ (RS 96.2039:16)
Š Imv m.s. + expanded form of the 3ms object suffix built on the short energic ending -an and the 3ms suffix -hu {˹š˺tnn}: /šattinannu/, ‘return him’ (RS 96.2039:24)
Š Ptc m.s. {mšṣu͗} : /mušōṣiʾu/, ‘someone who will send forth’ (RS 2.[004]+ i 27)

I-n/l

G PC 3ms {ypl}: /yappul-/ < √npl, ‘(the might one) will fall’ (RS 3.367 iv 5′)
G PC 3ms {yqḥ}: /yiqqaḥu/ < √lqḥ, ‘(no one whatsoever) shall take’ (RS 15.111:13/CAT 3.2)
G PC 3ms {yšu͗}: /yiššaʾu/ < √nšʾ, ‘he raises (his voice)’, (RS 2.[008]+ vii 22)
G PC 3ms {ydd}: /yiddad/, ‘(no man) will set out (and say)…’ (RS [Varia 14]:12)
G PC 3ms {yd}: /yaddû/, ‘he casts off’ < N-D-Y (RS 2.[004]+ i 3ʹ, 4ʹ)
G PC 3ms, energic and suffixal {ysynh}: /yassiyannaha/, ‘he banishes it’ √N-S-Y (RS 24.244:66)
G PC 3fs {tšu͗}: /tiššaʾu/, ‘she raises (her voice)’ (RS 2.[014]+ iii 35ʹ)
G PC 2ms {tqḥ}: /tiqqaḥ-/ < √lqḥ, ‘you will take’ (RS 3.367 iv 10′)
G PC 1cs {ı͗qḥ}: /ʾiqqaḥu/, < √lqḥ, ‘I will take’ (RS 2.[003]+ iv 41)
G PC 1cs {ı͗sʿ}: /ʾissaʿu/, ‘I will pay’ (RS [Varia 14]:10)
G PC 2cd {tṭṭ}: /taṭṭuṭā/ < *tanṭuṭā, ‘(her legs) rattle’ (RS 2.[014]+ iii 33ʹ)
G PC 3mp {tġṣ}: /taġġuṣū/ < *tanġuṣū, ‘(her vertebrae) rattle’ (RS 2.[014]+ iii 34ʹ)
G Imv ms {ša͗}: /šaʾa/ < √nšʾ, ‘lift up (the mountain)’ (RS 2.[008]+ viii 5)
G Imv ms {qḥ}: /qaḥ/ < √lqḥ, ‘take’ (RS 2.[003]+ iii 22)
G Imv fs {sk}: /sukī/, ‘pour out’ √N-S-K (RS 2.[014]+ iii 16ʹ)
G Imv fs {sk}: /sukī/ < √nsk, ‘pour out (a sacrifice)’ (RS 2.[014]+ iii 16)
G Imv mp {šu͗}: /šaʾū/ <N-Š-ʾ, ‘take up’ (RS 2.002:54)
Gt PC 3fs {ttpl}: /tittapilu/, ‘(the seventh wife) fell (on a sword)’ (RS 2.[003]+ i 21)
Gt PC 3ms {ytšı͗}: /yittašiʾ/, ‘it should be offered (lit. lifted up)’ (RS 1.002:16)
Gt PC 1cs {ı͗ts}: /ʾittasi/, ‘I will destroy’ < *intasiy √N-S-Y (RS 3.367 iv 4’)
N SC 3fs {nlqḥt}: /nalqaḥat/ or N participle f.s., ‘which was taken’ (RS 19.166:1)
N PC 3fp {tnġṣn}: /tinnaġiṣ(ā)na/ < √N-Ġ-Ṣ, ‘(his vertebrae) do not give in’ (RS 3.367 iv 17’)
N PC 3fp {tntkn}: /tinnatik(ā)na/ < √ntk, ‘(his tears) poured forth’ (RS 2.[003]+ i 28)
Š Ptc {mšṣṣ}: /mušaṣṣiṣi/ < √nṣṣ, ‘the one who chased away’ (RS 2.[014]+ iv 1)

I-h

G PC 3ms {ylm}: /yalum/ or /yallum/? < √H-L-M, ‘to strike’ (RS 3.367 iv 16’)
G PC 3ms, energic and suffixal {ylmn}: /yallumannu/, ‘he strikes him’ (RS 24.258:8)
G PC 3ms {yhbr}: /yihbaru/, ‘he bends down’ (RS 2.002:55)
G PC 3fs {tlkm}: /talikuma/, ‘she goes forth’ H-L-K (RS 2.002:16)
G PC 2ms {tlk}: /taliku/, ‘you come’ (RS 18.038:16)
G PC 1cs {a͗lk}: /ʾalik-/, ‘I go’ (RS 2.[019] ii 6)
G Imv ms {hlm}: /hulum/, ‘strike’ (RS 3.367 iv 21’)
G Imv ms {lk}: /lik/, ‘go’ (RS 2.[003]+ iii 2)
G Ptc mp {hlkm}: /hālikūma/, ‘those who form a procession’ (RS 2.002:27)
Gt PC 1cp {ntlk}: /nitaliku/, ‘we will go’ (RS 24.266:34′)
Gt PC 1cs {ı͗tlk}: /ʾitalik-/, ‘I walked’ √H-L-K (RS 2.[009]+ ii 15)
Gt PC 3md {ttlkn}: /titalikāna/, ‘they walk around’ √H-L-K (RS 2.002:67)
Š PC 1cs {a͗šhlk}: /ʾašahliku/, ‘I will cause to go’ √H-L-K (RS 2.[014]+ v 24)

II-w/y

G SC 3ms {ṯb}: /ṯāba/
G SC 3ms {qm}: /qāma/
G SC 3fs {knt}: /kānat/ < K-N, ‘there is (no war)’ (RS 94.5015:10)
G SC 1cs {mtt}: /mītātu/
G SC 1cs {štt}: /šātātu/, ‘I will put’ √Š-T (RS 94.2284:21)
G SC 2cd {bštm}: bāšātumā (note the long vowel between stem and ending)
G PC 3ms {yṣḥ}: /yaṣīḥ-/ < √Ṣ-Ḥ
G PC 3ms {yṣd}: /yaṣūd-/ < √Ṣ-D
G PC 3ms {ymk}: /yamūk-/, ‘he (does not) collapse’ < √M-K
or : /yamukk-/ < √M-K-K
G PC 3ms {yqm}: /yaqūm-/ but short form would be /yaqum/
G PC 3ms {ypq}: /yapūq-/, ‘he has (not) acquired (his rightful wife)’ (RS 2.[003]+ i 12)
G PC 3ms {yʿn}: /yaʕīnu/, ‘he sees’ (RS 2.[003]+ i 21, 22)
G PC 3ms {ymr}: /yamīru/, ‘he works a blessing’ M-R (RS 2.[004]+ i 35ʹ)
G PC 3ms {yšt}: /yašītu/, ‘he places’ (RS 2.002:38)
G PC 3fs {tmt}: /tamūtu/ < √M-T, ‘she died,’ (RS 2.[003]+ i 16)
G PC 3fs {tbn}: /tabīnu/, ‘(the hoard of the earth) does not understand’ (RS 2.[014]+ iii 27ʹ)
G PC 3fs {tṣḥ}: /taṣīḥu/, ‘she cries out’ (RS 2.[014]+ iii 36ʹ)
G PC 3fs {tkn}: /takūnu/, ‘(the kinswoman) was (to be his)’ (RS 2.[003]+ i 15)
G PC 3fs {tṣd}: /taṣūdu/, ‘she hunts’ √Ṣ-D (RS 2.002:16)
G PC 3fs {trm}: /tarīmu/, ‘she is high’ (RS 2.002:32)
G PC 3fs {tṣh}: /taṣīḥu/, ‘she cries out’ (RS 2.2002:32)
G PC 3fs energic –an(na) {trġn}: /tarūġan/, ‘she turns’ (RS 24.244:61)
G PC 2ms + 3ms {tmrnn}, /tamīrannannu/, ‘may you work a blessing’ (RS 2.[004]+ i 24ʹ)
G PC 1cs {a͗bn}: /ʾabīn-/, ‘I understand’ but short form /ʾabin/ √B-N (RS 2.[014]+ iii 26ʹ)
G PC 1cs {u͗bu͗}: /ʾubūʾu/ < *ʾabūʾu, ‘I enter’ √B-ʾ (RIH 78/20:18)
G PC 1cs {u͗ba͗}: /ʾubūʾa/ < *ʾabūʾa, ‘that I might enter’ √B-ʾ (RS 24.244:72)
G PC 3md {tṣḥn}: /taṣīḥāni/, ‘they cried out’ (RS 2.[003]+ vi 43)
G PC 3mp {tknn}: /takūnūna/, ‘they are/appear’ (RS 15.128:6, 9)
G PC 3mp {tgr}: /tagūrū/, ‘you dwell’ (RS 2.002:66)
G PC 3fp {tṣdn}: /taṣūdāna/, ‘they hunt’ √Ṣ-D (RS 24.258:23)
G Inf {mtk}: /mātika/, ‘your dying’ (RS 3.325+ i 15)
G Inf + 2fs suffix {ḥšk}: /ḥāšuki/, ‘hurry’ (lit. your hurrying) √Ḥ-Š (RS 2.[014]+ iii 18ʹ)
G Inf {ṣḥ}: /ṣāḥu/, ‘(they) call out’ (RS 2.002:69)
G Imv md {ql}: /qīlā/, ‘fall’ (RS 2.[014]+ iii 10ʹ)
G Imv fs {št}: /šītī/ (RS 2.[014]+ iii 15)
G Ptc ms {ṭḫ}: /tāḫu/, ‘someone who plasters’ √Ṭ-Ḥ (RS 2.[004]+ i 32ʹ)
N Ptc ms {nʿr}: /naʿāru/, ‘he awakes’ √ʿ-R (RS 24.258:28ʹ)
L PC 2ms {tnrr}: /tvnāriru/, ‘you shall illuminate’ (transitive) √N-R (RS 24.266:9)
L PC 3md {trmm}: /tvrāmima/ √R-M (RS 2.[008]+ vi 17)
L PC 2md {trmm}: /tvrāmima/ √R-M(RS 2.[008]+ v 54)
L PC 2md + enclitic particle –n {trmmn}: /tvrāmimāna/ √R-M
L PC uncertain {yrmm}: /yvrāmima/ √R-M (CAT 1.9:9 broken context)
L Imv md {rmm}: /rāmima/ (CAT 1.4 v 52)
Š SC 3ms {šql}: /šaqīla/ < √Q-L, ‘he sacrificed’ (CAT 1.4 vi 41)
Š PC 3ms {yšql}: /yašaqīlu/ < √Q-L ‘he caused to fall’ (RS 2.002:10)
Š PC 3mp {tṯṯbn}: /taṯaṯībūna/, < *tašaṯībūna ‘(until) they pay back’ √Ṯ-B (CAT 3.4:17)
Š PC 3fs {tšṣqn[h]}: /tašaṣīqannahū/, ‘she grasped him’ (CAT 1.6 ii 10)
Š PC 3fs {tṯṯb}: /taṯaṯību/ < *tašaṯību, ‘she brings back’ √Ṯ-B (RS 24.258:27ʹ)
Š Imv m.s. {ṯṯb}: /ṯaṯib/, ‘send (word)’ √ṯwb, (CAT 2.71:8)
Šp SC 3mp {škn}: /šukīnū/ < √K-N, ‘(which) were set/established’ (RS 17.236/CAT 4.280)
Št PC 3ms {yštql}: /yištaqīlu/ √Q-L, ‘he arrives’ (RS 24.244:68)
Št PC 1cs {ı̓štql}: /ʔištaqīlu/ √Q-L, ‘I will enter’ (RS 24.244:72)

II-ʔ

G PC 1cs {ı͗la͗k}: /ʾilʾaku/, ‘I will send’ √L-ʾ-K (RS 16.379:20)
G PC 3fs {tlu͗}: /tilʾû/, ‘it is weak’ √L-ʾ-W(?) (RS 24.244:68)
D PC 2fs {tlı͗kn}: /talaʾʾikīna/, ‘you will send’ √L-ʾ-K (RS 34.124:10)
Gt SC 3ms {ı͗štı͗r}: /ʾištaʾira/, ‘it remains’ √Š-ʾ-R (RS 17.297:3)
Gt PC 3ms *{yštı͗l}: /yištaʾil-/, ‘he asks’ √Š-ʾ-L (theoretical)
tD PC 3ms {yšta͗l}: /yištaʾʾal-/ < *yitšaʾʾal-, ‘he asks’ √Š-ʾ-L (RS 18.113 A:23)
tD PC 3ms {yšta͗l}: /yištaʾʾal-/ < *yitšaʾʾal-, ‘he asks’ √Š-ʾ-L (RS 29.093:12)
tD PC 3ms {yšta͗l}: /yištaʾʾal-/ < *yitšaʾʾal-, ‘he asks’ √Š-ʾ-L (RS 29.095:10)

II-h

G SC 3ms {yu͗hb}: /yaʾuhub-/ or /yuʾuhub-/, as opposed to bh yiqtal- form.

II/III

G SC 3ms/Inf(?) {sb}: /sabba/ or /sabbu/
G SC 3ms/Inf(?) {šl}: /šalla/ or /šallu/
G SC 3ms/Inf(?) {qn}: /qanna/ or /qannu/
G SC 3ms {br}: /barra/, ‘PN is free’ (CAT 2.19:4)
G SC 3ms {zb}: /zabba/, or verbal adjective /zabbu/ (RS 94.2014:1)
G SC 3fs, 1cs {ḫtt}: /?/ or /ḫatātu/ (RS 3.367 iv 1’ broken ctx)
G PC 3ms {yšt}: /yašutt-/, ‘he dismembers (him)’ √Š-T-T (RS 3.367 iv 27ʹ)
G PC 3ms {ydd}: /yiddad/, ‘(no man) will set out (and say)…’ (CAT 3.9:12)
G PC 3ms {ymk}: /yamūk-/, ‘he (does not) collapse’ < √M-K
or : /yamukk-/ < √M-K-K
G PC 3ms {ybd}: /yabVddu/ √B-D-D (CAT 1.3 i 18)
G PC 3ms {ygz}: /yaguzzu/ √G-Z-Z (CAT 1.80:5)
G PC 3ms {ydm}: /yadum(mu)/ √D-M-M (1.16 ii 56)
G PC 3ms {yḥr}: /yaḥVr(ru)/ √Ḥ-R-R (1.151:4)
G PC 3ms {ykr}: /yakurru/, ‘he returns’ √K-R-R (RS 24.244:62)
G PC 3fs {tdm}: /tadum(mu)/ √D-M-M (1.16 i 30)
G PC 2ms {tdm}: /tadum(mu)/ √D-M-M (1.16 I 26)
G PC 3ms with long energic suffixal ending {ybṯ . nn}: /yabuṯṯannannu/ (RS 3.367 iv 31’)
G PC 2cd {tṭṭ}: /taṭṭuṭā/ < *tanṭuṭā, ‘(her legs) rattle’ (2.[014]+ iii 33ʹ)
G Inf + 2fs suffix {ʿṣk}: /ʿaṣûki/, ‘press’ (lit. your pressing) √ʿ-Ṣ-Y or √ʿ-Ṣ-Ṣ (RS 2.[014]+ iii 18ʹ)
G Imv ms {dm} √dmm? dim(a) yōma wa ṯanâ, ‘rest for a day and another’ (RS 2.[003]+ III 10)
G Imv ms {bṯ}:/ buṯ(ṯa)/, ‘scatter’ √B-Ṯ-Ṯ (RS 3.367 iv 28ʹ, 29ʹ)
G Imv ms + 1cs sfx + enclitic {ḥnny} : /ḥunnanīya/, ‘Show me grace (before the king)’ √Ḥ-N-N (RS 15.007:3)
Gp 3ms {rš}: /rušša/, ‘he (Kirta) was crushed’ < */rušaša/ or */rušiša/ √R-Š-Š (RS 2.[003]+ i 10)
D PC 3mp {tʿzzk}: /taʿazzizūka/, ‘may (the gods) strengthen you’ √ʿ-Z-Z (RS 1.018:4-6)
Gt PC 3ms energic {ystrn}: /yistarranna/, ‘let the Beloved trust/tell/medidate(?)’ (CAT 1.4 vii 48)
L SC 3fs {tḥrr}: /taḥāriru/, ‘(a bird) is roasting’ √Ḥ-R-R (RS 2.002:41)
L PC 3ms {yʿzz}: /yaʿāzizu/, ‘the king will become more powerful’ √ʿ-Z-Z (RS 24.247+:57ʹ)
L/D PC 3ms {yšnn}: /yašāninu/, ‘he grinds/ground (his teeth)’ √Š-N-N (CAT 1.16 i 13)
L/D PC 3ms + enclitic {yhrrm}: /yahāriruma/, ‘he became inflamed’ √H-R-R (CAT 1.12 i 39)
L/D PC 3ms + 2fs suff {yḫssk}: /yaḫāsisuki/, ‘(does the hand of ʾIlu) arouse you?’ √Ḫ-S-S (RS 2.[008]+ iv 39)
L PC 3fs {tqnn}: /taqāninu/, ‘(the scorpion) will stand erect’ √Q-N-N (RS 92.2014:5, 7
L PC 2mp {tqṭṭn}: /taqātitūna/, ‘you commit an immoral act’ √Q-Ṭ-Ṭ (RS 1.002:23ʹ, 31ʹ, 40ʹ)
L PC 1cs {a͗rnn}: /ʾarāninu/, ‘I will shout’ √R-N-N (CAT 1.82:6)
R PC 3ms {yqṯqṯ}: /yaqaṯqiṯu/, ‘he drags (his cup)’ < √Q-Ṯ-Ṯ (RS 24.258:5)

III-ʾ

G SC 3ms {yṣa͗}: / yaṣaʾa/, ‘(the word) did not go forth’
G PC 3ms jussive/neg command {yṣı͗}: /yaṣiʾ/, ‘may (nothing) come out (of your mouth),’ (RS 94.2406:39)
G PC 3ms volitive {ymẓa͗} : /yimẓaʾa/, ‘that he might find’ (RS 2.[012] i 37)
G PC 1cs {u͗ba͗}: /ʾubūʾa/ < *ʾabūʾa, ‘that I might enter’ √B-ʾ (RS 24.244:72)
G PC 1cs {u͗bu͗}: /ʾubūʾu/, ‘I will come’
G PC 1cs {˹ı͗˺qra͗}: /ʾiqraʾa/, ‘I call (to the gracioius gods)’ (RS 2.002:1)
G PC 2ms {tbı͗}: /tabuʾ/ or /tabū(ʾ)/, ‘you must (not) enter’
G PC 2ms {tḫṭı͗n}: /tiḫṭaʾna/
G PC 3fs {tqru͗}: /tiqraʾu/, ‘she calls’ (RS 24.244:8)
G PC 3fs {trpa͗}: /tirpaʾa/, ‘(when) she would heal’ (RS 24.258:28ʹ)
G Imv ms {ša͗}: /šaʾa/ < √nšʾ, ‘lift up (the mountain)’ (CAT 1.4 viii 5)
G Ptc fs {qrı͗t}: /qāriʾtu/, ‘she calls’ (RS 24.244:2)
D SC 3ms {mla͗}: /millaʾa/, ‘he filled’ (RS 2.002:76)
Š SC 3ms {šsʿn}: /šassiʿanī/, ‘he made me pay’ (CAT 2.81:23[24])

III-w/y

G SC
G SC 3ms QTLa {ʿl}: /ʿala/ or /ʿalâ/ < *ʿalaya
G SC 3ms {ʿly}: /ʿalay/ or /ʿalaya/ (probably an historical writing)
G SC 3ms {pdy}: /padaya/, ‘he redeemed’ (CAT 3.4:2)
G SC 3ms/Inf {yr}: /yara/ or /yarâ/ < yaraya, ‘he casts’ (Inf yarû) √Y-R-Y (RS 2.002:38)
G SC 3ms/Inf {kr}: /kara/ or Inf /karû/ √K-R-Y (RS 24.258:14)
G SC 3fs {sʿt}: /saʿât/, ‘she flees,’ < √S-ʿ-Y (RS 2.[003]+ iii 8, 9; iv 51)
G SC 2ms {bnt}: /banêta/, /banîta/, or /banōta/, < √bny, ‘you have built’
G SC 1cs {ṯnt}: /ṯanêtu/ or /ṯanîtu/ < *ṯanaytu (RS 3.367 iv 8’)
G SC 1cs {mġt}: /maġêtu/ or /maġîtu/, ‘I arrived’ (CAT 1.6 ii 19)
G SC 3md {mġy}: /maġayā/, ‘they have arrived’ (RS 2.[014]+ iii 36ʹ)
G SC 3mp/Inf {šty}: /šatayū/ or /šatāyu/, ‘(the gods) drink’
G SC 3mp {phnn}: /pahûnannu/, ‘they saw him?’ (CAT 2.62:6’)
G PC, Imv
G PC 3ms indicative {yʿl}: /yaʿli/, ‘he will climb up (onto his bed)’ < *yaʿlî < * yaʿliyu (RS 2.[004]+ i 38ʹ)
G PC 3ms indicative {ymġy}: /yamġiyu/, ‘he arrived’ (1.14 iv 47)
G PC 3ms indicative {yḥdy}: /yaḥdiyu/, ‘he will see’ (RS 24.277:32)
G PC 3ms {ybky}: /yabkiyu/, ‘he weeps’ (RS 2.[003]+ i 26)
G PC 3ms jussive {yı͗p}: /yaʾpi/, ‘he must bake,’ (RS 2.[003]+ ii 30)
G PC 3ms jussive {yḥ} √ḥyy: /yaḥi/ < *yaḥy < *yaḥyi < *yaḥyiy (1.17 I 37; RS 20.396 Aa [KTU/CAT 6.30+31]), ‘may he live’
G PC 3ms jussive {ybk} √bky: /yabki/ < *yabkiy
G PC 3ms jussive {yšt} √šty: /yišta/ < *yištay < *yaštayu
G PC 3ms indicative short form {yšt}: /yištû/ √Š-T-Y (RS 24.258:16)
G PC 3ms {yd}: /yaddû/, ‘he casts off’ < N-D-Y (RS 2.[004]+ i 3ʹ, 4ʹ)
G PC 3ms, energic and suffixal {ysynh}: /yassiyannaha/, ‘he banishes it’ √N-S-Y (RS 24.244:66)
G PC 3fs short form {tph} √phy: /tipha/, ‘(Anat) sees’ (CAT 1.3 iii 32)
G PC 3fs {tlu͗}: /tilʾû/, ‘it is weak’ √L-ʾ-W(?) (RS 24.244:68)
G PC 1cs optative {a͗šlw} √šlw: /ʾašluwa/, ‘that I might find peace’ (RS 2.[003]+ iii 45)
G PC 1cs {a͗mr[hm]}: /ʾamrihumu/, ‘I will expel them’ √M-R-Y (RS 3.367 iv 2ʹ)
G PC 1cs {ı͗bġyh}: /ʾibġayuhu/, ‘I will explain it’ √B-Ġ-Y (RS 2.[014]+ iii 29ʹ)
G PC 1cs (+ energic?) + 2fs suffix {a͗ṯnyk}: /ʾaṯniyakki/ < /ʾaṯniyanki/ √Ṯ-N-Y (RS 2.[014]+ iii 22ʹ)
G PC 3md energic (or 3fs accusative suffix): {yʿnyn}: /yaʿniyāna/ (CAT 1.3 iv 5)
G PC 3mp {tʿnyn}: /taʿniyūna/, ‘they respond’ √ʿ-N-Y (RS 2.002:12)
G PC 2fd {tṣḥn}: /taṣīḥāna/, ‘they cry out’ √Ṣ-Ḥ (RS 2.002:39)
G PC 1cp indic {nšt}: ništû? < *ništayu
G PC 1cp short form {nšt}: ništa? < *ništay (Pardee AfO 50:222) or G PC 1cp cohort {nšt}: ništâ < ništaya
G Imv ms {mr}: /miri/ < *mirî < *miriy, ‘expel’ (RS 3.367 iv 19’ff)
G Imv ms {ḥd}: /ḥidi/ < *ḥidî < *ḥidiy, ‘see’ (RIH 77/01:8ʹ, 14ʹʹ)
G Imv ms {ydy} : /yidiya/, ‘throw down’ (RS 24.244:5)
G Imv md {ṯny}: /ṯiniyā/, ‘repeat’ (RS 2.[014]+ iii 12ʹ)
G Imv md {šty}: /šatayā/, ‘drink’ (RS 2.002:6)

Non-finite G Stem

G Inf + 3ms suffix {ṯnh}: /ṯanîhu/, ‘(when) he announces/repeats’ (RS 2.[003]+ i 27)
G Inf + 3ms suffix {bkyh}: /bakāyihu/, ‘(when) he weeps’ (RS 2.[003]+ i 31)
G Inf {bky}: /bakāy-/, ‘weeping’ (RS 2.[003]+ i 31)
G Inf {bk}: /bakî/(?), ‘weeping’ (RS 2.[003]+ ii 7)
G Inf {hg}: /hagû/(?), ‘counting, telling’ (RS 2.[003]+ ii 38)
G Inf {a͗n}: /ʾanû/(?), or G SC 3md (RS 3.367 iv 7’)
G SC 3ms/Inf {yr}: /yara/ or /yarâ/ < yaraya, ‘he casts’ (Inf. yarû) √Y-R-Y (RS 2.002:38)
G SC 3ms/Inf {kr}: /kara/ or Inf /karû/ √K-R-Y (RS 24.258:14)
G Inf + 2fs suffix {ʿṣk}: /ʿaṣûki/, ‘press’ (lit. your pressing) √ʿ-Ṣ-Y or √ʿ-Ṣ-Ṣ (RS 2.[014]+ iii 18ʹ)
G Ptc m.s. {bny}: /bāniyu/, ‘the creator’ (RS 2.[004]+ i 24ʹ)
G Ptc f.s. {štt}: /šatûti/ genitive, ‘woven’ (CAT 4.337:9)

Derived Stems

D SC 1cs {klt}: /killêtu/, ‘I have finished-off’ (RS 2.[014]+ iii 39ʹ, 46ʹ)
D SC 1cs {ḥwt}: /ḥiwwêtu/, ‘I repaired’ (CAT 2.70:15)
D PC 3ms long form {ykly}: /yakalliyu/ (RS 3.367 iv 27’)
D PC 3ms {yšqy}: /yašaqqiyu/, ‘he gives drink’ (RS 2.[004]+ i 10ʹ)
D PC 3ms {ypt}: /yapattû/, ‘he seduces’ (RS 2.002:39)
D PC 3ms, energic and suffixal {yʿdynh}: /yaʿaddiyannaha/, ‘he makes it pass on’ (RS 24.244:66)
D PC 3ms, energic and suffixal {ylšn}: /yalaššinnu/ < *yalaššiyan+hu, ‘he knocks him over’ √L-Š-Y (RS 24.258:20)
D PC 2ms (negative) jussive {tġl}: /taġalli/ < taġalliyu (CAT 1.3 i 1)
D Imv ms {gr . nn}: /garrinnanna/, < √gry, ‘attack it’ (RS 2.[003]+ iii 6)
D Imv fs {qryy}: /qarriyīya/, ‘present’ √Q-R-Y (RS 2.[014]+ iii 14ʹ)
Š SC 3ms {šʿly}: /šaʿliya/, ‘he set up’ (RS 6.028:1)
Š SC 3fs {šʿlyt}: /šaʿliyat/, ‘she set up’ (RS 6.021:1)
Š PC 3ms long form with suffix {yšqynh}: /yašqiyannahu/ (CAT 1.3 i 9)
Š PC 3fs negative command {tšʿl}: /tašaʿli/, ‘(do not) send up (your arrows) [i.e. shoot]’ (RS 2.[003]+ iii 12)
Št Imv md {tštḥwy}: /tištaḥwiyā/ (CAT 1.3 iii 10)
Št Ptc fd, nominative oblique {mštʿltm}: /muštaʿilatêma/, ‘two females present (an offering)’ (RS 2.002:31bis)

Doubly Weak Roots

G Stative Ptc f.s. + genitival suffix {ṯth}: /ṯâtihu/, < Ṯ-W-Y, ‘his lodging’ (CAT 3.3/RS 15.128:4)
G SC 2ms {a͗twt}: /ʾatawāta/??, ‘you have come’ (RS 2.[0008]+ iv 32) or G SC 3fs? /ʾatawat/
G PC 2cd {tṭṭ}: /taṭṭuṭā/ < *tanṭuṭā, ‘(her legs) rattle’ (2.[014]+ iii 33ʹ)
G PC 3ms {yd}: /yaddû/, ‘he casts off’ < N-D-Y (RS 2.[004]+ i 3ʹ, 4ʹ)
G PC 3ms {yḥ}: /yaḥî/, ‘may he live’ < Ḥ-Y-Y (RS 2.[004]+ i 36ʹ)
G PC 3ms, energic and suffixal {ysynh}: /yassiyannaha/, ‘he banishes it’ √N-S-Y (RS 24.244:66)
G PC 3fp? {tı͗t}: /taʾtū/, ‘(the gods who) come’ < *taʾtiyū √ʾ-T-W
G PC 3fp? {tı͗ty}: /taʾtiyū/, ‘(the gods blessed and) went’ √ʾ-T-W (CAT 1.15 iii 17-18)
G Imv ms {a͗t}: /ʾati/ < *ʾatî <*ʾatiy, ‘come’ (RS 2.[009]+ ii 12)
G Imv ms {a͗tm}: /ʾatîma/, ‘come’ < √ʾ-T-W (RS 2.[014]+ iii 28′)
Gt PC 1cs {ı͗ts}: /ʾittasi/, ‘I will destroy’ < *intasiy √N-S-Y (RS 3.367 iv 4’)
Št Imv md {tštḥwy}: /tištaḥwiyā/, ‘do homage’ √Ḥ-W-Y (RS 2.[014]+ iii 10ʹ)
Rt Imv fs {ttpp}: /tîtapêpû/, ‘beautify’ < *tiYtaPaYPiYu √Y-P-Y (RS 2.[014]+ iii 1)

√YTN or NTN

The G PC forms suggest that the Ugaritic verbs are formed on the theoretical biconsonantal root T-N (Manual, 54-55).
G SC 1cs {ytt}: /yatattu/ < *yatintu, ‘I gave’ (RS 24.244:75)
G SC 1cs {ytnt}: /yatinātu/, ‘I gave’
G PC 3fs {ttb}: /tatin-/, ‘she pronounced (lit. gives her voice)’ (RS 3.367 iv 6’)
G PC 2ms {ttn}: /tatin-/ (1.14 iii 38)
G PC 1cs {a͗tn}: /ʾatin-/ or /ʾattin-/
G Imv ms {tn}: /tin/ (1.14 iii 39; RS 24.244:73)
Š SC 3ms {štn}: /šatin-/ < T-N, /šōtina/ <W-T-N, or /šattin-/ < N-T-N
Š SC 1cs {štnt}: /šatinātu/

Quadriconsonantal Roots

Quadriconsonantal forms in Ug are of the types (1) 1-2-1-2; (2) 1233; (3) 1-r/l-2-3
G SC 3ms {grdš}: /gVrdVša/, ‘(Kirta) was shattered (regarding his estate),’ (RS 2.[003]+ i 11)
G PC 3ms {yprsḥ}: /yaparsiḥ(u)/, ‘(Yammu) will collapse,’ (RS 3.367 iv 25ʹ)