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Friday, October 31

  1. page home edited ... This wiki is dedicated to Ugaritic studies. It is currently in its earliest stage of developme…
    ...
    This wiki is dedicated to Ugaritic studies. It is currently in its earliest stage of development.
    The site is produced according to the Unicode standard for fonts. It should display properly in any Unicode font. However, I find that it looks best in a version of Gentium that I have tailored specifically for Ugaritic transliteration. If the transliterations do not display properly in your browser, check your browser font settings to verify that your browser is set to display fonts in Unicode.
    {GENTIUM.ttf}
    The Preface and first six lessons of an "Introduction to Ugaritic Grammar" are currently available.
    Lesson 01
    (view changes)
    7:46 am
  2. file GENTIUM.ttf uploaded
    7:44 am
  3. page home edited ... Welcome to the Ugaritic WikiSpace (BETA) This wiki is dedicated to Ugaritic studies. It is cu…
    ...
    Welcome to the Ugaritic WikiSpace (BETA)
    This wiki is dedicated to Ugaritic studies. It is currently in its earliest stage of development.
    The site is produced according to the Unicode standard for fonts. It should display properly in any Unicode font. However, I find that it looks best in a version of Gentium that I have tailored specifically for Ugaritic transliteration. If the transliterations do not display properly in your browser, check your browser font settings to verify that your browser is set to display fonts in Unicode.
    The Preface and first six lessons of an "Introduction to Ugaritic Grammar" are currently available.
    Lesson 01
    (view changes)
    7:44 am

Wednesday, October 29

  1. page Weak Verb-Examples edited Weak Roots I-ʔ I-ʾ Attested I-ʔ I-ʾ roots: ʔbd, ʔwd, ʔdm, ʔdn, ʔgg, ʔhb, ʔḫd, ʔḫr, ʔkl, …

    Weak Roots
    I-ʔI-ʾ
    Attested I-ʔI-ʾ roots: ʔbd, ʔwd, ʔdm, ʔdn, ʔgg, ʔhb, ʔḫd, ʔḫr, ʔkl, ʔnš, ʔny, ʔpq, ʔpy, ʔr, ʔrk, ʔrš, ʔsr, ʔtw, ʔṯm, ʔṯr, ʔzrʾbd, ʾwd, ʾdm, ʾdn, ʾgg, ʾhb, ʾḫd, ʾḫr, ʾkl, ʾnš, ʾny, ʾpq, ʾpy, ʾr, ʾrk, ʾrš, ʾsr, ʾtw, ʾṯm, ʾṯr, ʾzr
    G SC 3fp {a̓nš}: /ʔanišū/,{a͗nš}: /ʾanišū/, ‘(her spine)
    ...
    form preterite {yı̓ḫd}: /yaʔḫud/, ‘Ilu{yı͗ḫd}: /yaʾḫud/, ‘ʾIlu grasped (a
    ...

    cf. N-stem {y˹a̓˺ḫd}{y˹a͗˺ḫd} in RS
    ...
    PC 3ms {yu̓ḫd}: /yaʔuḫud-/{yu͗ḫd}: /yaʾuḫud-/ (secondary opening
    ...
    harmony); or /yuʔuḫud-//yuʾuḫud-/ [could be
    ...
    explain bh yō(ʔ)ḥēz:yō(ʾ)ḥēz: < yōʔḥōzyōʾḥōz < yuʔḥuzyuʾḥuz < yuʔuḥuzyuʾuḥuz < yaʔuḥuzyaʾuḥuz
    G PC 3ms jussive {yı̓p}: /yaʔpi/,{yı͗p}: /yaʾpi/, ‘he must
    ...
    + enclitic {tı̓rkm}: /tiʔrak(u)ma/,{tı͗rkm}: /tiʾrak(u)ma/, ‘may (ʔIlu’s(ʾIlu’s hand) stretch
    ...
    PC 1cs {a̓rš}: /ʔārišu/,{a͗rš}: /ʾārišu/, ‘I ask,
    ...
    PC 3cp {tu̓dn}: /taʔudunū/,{tu͗dn}: /taʾudunū/, ‘may they
    ...
    Imv fs {a̓rk}: /ʔarakī/,{a͗rk}: /ʾarakī/, ‘stretch out (hand of ʔIlu)’ʾIlu)’ (RS 2.002:34)
    ...
    Imv ms {ı̓rš}{ı͗rš}
    G Imv ms {ı̓ṯr}{ı͗ṯr}
    G Imv ms {a̓t}{a͗t}
    G Ptc {a̓nḫ}: /ʔāniḫu/,{a͗nḫ}: /ʾāniḫu/, ‘the groaning
    ...

    Gp Ptc {u̓zr}: /ʔuzūru/,{u͗zr}: /ʾuzūru/, ‘the one
    ...
    SC 3ms {ı̓hb}: /ʔihhaba/,{ı͗hb}: /ʾihhaba/, ‘he loves/d’
    ...
    PC 1cs(?) {a̓bd}: *ʔaʔabbid-{a͗bd}: *ʾaʾabbid- > *ʔābbid-*ʾābbid- > /ʔabbid-/,/ʾabbid-/, ‘I will
    ...
    PC 3ms {ya̓ḫd}: /yaʔaḫḫid-/,{ya͗ḫd}: /yaʾaḫḫid-/, ‘15 bowls
    ...
    PC 3ms {ya̓rš}: /yaʔarrišu/,{ya͗rš}: /yaʾarrišu/, ‘which ḫSWNḪSWN does not
    ...
    PC 3ms {ya̓rš}: /yaʔarrišu/,{ya͗rš}: /yaʾarrišu/, ‘would he
    ...
    active transitive {ta̓ršn}: /taʔarrišūna/,{ta͗ršn}: /taʾarrišūna/, ‘men of
    ...
    will request ʕMSN’ʿMSN’ (CAT 4.370:1-2)
    ...
    PC 3cp /taʔarišūna/?;/taʾarišūna/?; less likely N PC /tiʔʔarišūna//tiʾʾarišūna/
    D Imv ms {a̓bd}: /ʔabbida/,{a͗bd}: /ʾabbida/, ‘destroy’ (RS
    ...
    SC 3ms {ı̓tdb}: /ʔîtadiba/{ı͗tdb}: /ʾîtadiba/ (metathesis/error) < *ʔîtabida*ʾîtabida < *ʔiʔtabida,*ʾiʾtabida, ‘he has perished’ √ʔ-B-D√ʾ-B-D (RS 2.[003]+
    ...
    PC 3ms {yı̓tsp}: /yiʔtasipu/,{yı͗tsp}: /yiʾtasipu/, ‘(Reshef) gathers
    ...
    PC 3ms {yı̓tṯm}: /yiʔtaṯimu/,{yı͗tṯm}: /yiʾtaṯimu/, ‘he will
    ...
    PC 3ms {yı̓tbd}: /yiʔtabidu/,{yı͗tbd}: /yiʾtabidu/, ‘it has
    ...
    PC 3mp {tı̓tṯmn}: /tiʔtaṯimūna/,{tı͗tṯmn}: /tiʾtaṯimūna/, ‘the will
    ...
    PC 3ms {ya̓ḫd}: /yiʔʔaḫidu/,{ya͗ḫd}: /yiʾʾaḫidu/, ‘he will
    ...
    3ms preterite {ya̓dm}: /yiʔʔadim/,{ya͗dm}: /yiʾʾadim/, ‘he roughed
    ...
    PC 2ms {ta̓dm}: /tiʔʔadim(v)/,{ta͗dm}: /tiʾʾadim(v)/, ‘rouge yourself’
    ...
    SC 3ms {šı̓sp}: /šaʔsipa/,{šı͗sp}: /šaʾsipa/, ‘he has mustered’ (rs94.5015:24′)(RS 94.5015:24′)
    I-y/w
    G SC 3ms {yr}: /yara/ < yarayu, ‘he casts’ √Y-R-Y (RS 2.002:38)
    ...
    G SC 3fd {ylt}: /yalattā/ < /yaladtā/, ‘(the two women) gave birth’ (RS 2.002:53, 60)
    G PC 3ms {yšn}: /yîšan-/ < yiyšan- < yayšan- < yawšan < √WŠN (type 2)
    ...
    PC 3ms {ydʕ}: /yidaʕ/{ydʿ}: /yidaʿ/ (type 1)
    G PC 3ms {ybl}: /yabilu/ < √ybl (cf Akk wabālum) (type 1) (RS 94.2965:22, 24)
    G PC 3ms {yšn}: / yîšan(u)/ < √yšn (type 2) (RS 2.[003]+ i 31)
    G PC 3ms {yrd}: /yarid(u)/ <Y/W-R-D (RS 2.[003]+ i 36)
    ...
    (negative) volitive {yṣı̓}: /yaṣiʔ/,{yṣı͗}: /yaṣiʾ/, ‘do not
    G PC 3ms, energic and suffixal {yblnh}: /yabilannaha/, ‘he carries it’ (RS 24.244:67)
    ...
    and suffixal {ydʕnn}: /yidaʕannannu/,{ydʿnn}: /yidaʿannannu/, ‘he knows
    ...
    PC 1cs {a̓bl}: /ʔabilu/{a͗bl}: /ʾabilu/ < */ʔawbilu/*/ʾawbilu/ (type 1),
    ...
    PC 1cs {a̓tn}: /ʔatinu/{a͗tn}: /ʾatinu/ < */ʔaytinu/*/ʾaytinu/ (type 1)
    ...
    17, 27; rs94.5015:6,RS 94.5015:6, 7, 12)
    ...
    PC 1cs {a̓ṯb}: /ʔaṯib-/{a͗ṯb}: /ʾaṯib-/ < */ʔayṯib-/ <*/ʔawṯib-/*/ʾayṯib-/ <*/ʾawṯib-/ (type 1)
    ...
    PC 1cs {a̓rṯ}: /ʔariṯ-/{a͗rṯ}: /ʾariṯ-/ (contra BH
    ...
    PC 1cs {a̓rd}: /ʔarid-/,{a͗rd}: /ʾarid-/, ‘I descend’
    ...
    PC 1cs {ı̓dʕ}: /ʔidaʕ-/,{ı͗dʿ}: /ʾidaʿ-/, ‘I know’ √Y-D-ʕ√Y-D-ʿ (RS 2.[009]:8)
    G PC 3md {yṯb}: /yaṯibā/ (type 1) (RS 2.[003]+ vi 40)
    G PC 3fd {tldn}: /talidāna/ (RS 2.002:52)
    ...
    PC 3mp {tdʕ}: /tidaʕū/{tdʿ}: /tidaʿū/ (type 1)
    ...
    Imv ms {dʕ}: /daʕ/,{dʿ}: /daʿ/, ‘know!’ (RS
    G Imv ms {ydy} : /yidiya/, ‘throw down’ (RS 24.244:5)
    G Imv fs {bl}: /bilī/, ‘take (a message)’ Y-B-L (RS 24.244:2 et passim)
    G Ptc fs {ylt}: /yālittu/ < /yālidtu/, ‘she who will bear’ (RS 2.[004]+ i 41ʹ)
    ...
    PC 1cs {ı̓trṯ{ı͗trṯ }: /ʔîtariṯu/,/ʾîtariṯu/, ‘I inherited/confiscated’
    D PC 3cd {twtḥ}: /tawattiḥā/, ‘let (your legs) hurry’ √W-T-Ḥ (RS 2.[014]+ iii 20)
    D Inf {wld}: /wulladu/ [or G walādu] (RS 2.[003]+ iii 48)
    ...
    Š SC 3ms {š˹tn˺}: /šōtina/ or /šattina/(?) < */šaytina/ (RS 16.382:6)
    Š SC 1cs {štnt}: /šatinātu/, ‘I made (them) pay,’ (RS 94.2479:21)
    ...
    PC 1cs {a̓šld}: /ʔašōlidu/,{a͗šld}: /ʾašōlidu/, ‘I have
    ...
    1cs jussive {a̓šṣı̓}: /ʔašōṣiʔ/{a͗šṣı͗}: /ʾašōṣiʾ/ < √yṣʔ,√yṣʾ, ‘I will
    Š Imv m.s. + expanded form of the 3ms object suffix built on the long energic ending -nna and the 3ms suffix -hu {štnn˹h˺}: /šattinannahu/, ‘return him’ (RS 96.2039:16)
    Š Imv m.s. + expanded form of the 3ms object suffix built on the short energic ending -an and the 3ms suffix -hu {˹š˺tnn}: /šattinannu/, ‘return him’ (RS 96.2039:24)
    ...
    Ptc m.s. {mšṣu̓}{mšṣu͗} : /mušōṣiʔu/,/mušōṣiʾu/, ‘someone who
    I-n/l
    G PC 3ms {ypl}: /yappul-/ < √npl, ‘(the might one) will fall’ (RS 3.367 iv 5′)
    G PC 3ms {yqḥ}: /yiqqaḥu/ < √lqḥ, ‘(no one whatsoever) shall take’ (RS 15.111:13/CAT 3.2)
    ...
    PC 3ms {yšu̓}: /yiššaʔu/{yšu͗}: /yiššaʾu/ < √nšʔ,√nšʾ, ‘he raises
    G PC 3ms {ydd}: /yiddad/, ‘(no man) will set out (and say)…’ (RS [Varia 14]:12)
    G PC 3ms {yd}: /yaddû/, ‘he casts off’ < N-D-Y (RS 2.[004]+ i 3ʹ, 4ʹ)
    G PC 3ms, energic and suffixal {ysynh}: /yassiyannaha/, ‘he banishes it’ √N-S-Y (RS 24.244:66)
    ...
    PC 3fs {tšu̓}: /tiššaʔu/,{tšu͗}: /tiššaʾu/, ‘she raises
    G PC 2ms {tqḥ}: /tiqqaḥ-/ < √lqḥ, ‘you will take’ (RS 3.367 iv 10′)
    ...
    PC 1cs {ı̓qḥ}: /ʔiqqaḥu/,{ı͗qḥ}: /ʾiqqaḥu/, < √lqḥ,
    ...
    PC 1cs {ı̓sʕ}: /ʔissaʕu/,{ı͗sʿ}: /ʾissaʿu/, ‘I will
    G PC 2cd {tṭṭ}: /taṭṭuṭā/ < *tanṭuṭā, ‘(her legs) rattle’ (RS 2.[014]+ iii 33ʹ)
    G PC 3mp {tġṣ}: /taġġuṣū/ < *tanġuṣū, ‘(her vertebrae) rattle’ (RS 2.[014]+ iii 34ʹ)
    ...
    Imv ms {ša̓}: /šaʔa/{ša͗}: /šaʾa/ < √nšʔ,√nšʾ, ‘lift up
    G Imv ms {qḥ}: /qaḥ/ < √lqḥ, ‘take’ (RS 2.[003]+ iii 22)
    G Imv fs {sk}: /sukī/, ‘pour out’ √N-S-K (RS 2.[014]+ iii 16ʹ)
    G Imv fs {sk}: /sukī/ < √nsk, ‘pour out (a sacrifice)’ (RS 2.[014]+ iii 16)
    ...
    Imv mp {šu̓}: /šaʔū/ <N-Š-ʔ,{šu͗}: /šaʾū/ <N-Š-ʾ, ‘take up’
    Gt PC 3fs {ttpl}: /tittapilu/, ‘(the seventh wife) fell (on a sword)’ (RS 2.[003]+ i 21)
    ...
    PC 3ms {ytšı̓}: /yittašiʔ/,{ytšı͗}: /yittašiʾ/, ‘it should
    ...
    PC 1cs {ı̓ts}: /ʔittasi/,{ı͗ts}: /ʾittasi/, ‘I will
    N SC 3fs {nlqḥt}: /nalqaḥat/ or N participle f.s., ‘which was taken’ (RS 19.166:1)
    ...
    /tinnaġiṣ(ā)na/ < √N-Ġ-ṣ,√N-Ġ-Ṣ, ‘(his vertebrae)
    N PC 3fp {tntkn}: /tinnatik(ā)na/ < √ntk, ‘(his tears) poured forth’ (RS 2.[003]+ i 28)
    Š Ptc {mšṣṣ}: /mušaṣṣiṣi/ < √nṣṣ, ‘the one who chased away’ (RS 2.[014]+ iv 1)
    ...
    G PC 3fs {tlkm}: /talikuma/, ‘she goes forth’ H-L-K (RS 2.002:16)
    G PC 2ms {tlk}: /taliku/, ‘you come’ (RS 18.038:16)
    ...
    PC 1cs {a̓lk}: /ʔalik-/,{a͗lk}: /ʾalik-/, ‘I go’
    G Imv ms {hlm}: /hulum/, ‘strike’ (RS 3.367 iv 21’)
    G Imv ms {lk}: /lik/, ‘go’ (RS 2.[003]+ iii 2)
    G Ptc mp {hlkm}: /hālikūma/, ‘those who form a procession’ (RS 2.002:27)
    Gt PC 1cp {ntlk}: /nitaliku/, ‘we will go’ (RS 24.266:34′)
    ...
    PC 1cs {ı̓tlk}: /ʔitalik-/,{ı͗tlk}: /ʾitalik-/, ‘I walked’
    Gt PC 3md {ttlkn}: /titalikāna/, ‘they walk around’ √H-L-K (RS 2.002:67)
    ...
    PC 1cs {a̓šhlk}: /ʔašahliku/,{a͗šhlk}: /ʾašahliku/, ‘I will
    II-w/y
    G SC 3ms {ṯb}: /ṯāba/
    ...
    G PC 3ms {yqm}: /yaqūm-/ but short form would be /yaqum/
    G PC 3ms {ypq}: /yapūq-/, ‘he has (not) acquired (his rightful wife)’ (RS 2.[003]+ i 12)
    ...
    PC 3ms {yʕn}:{yʿn}: /yaʕīnu/, ‘he
    G PC 3ms {ymr}: /yamīru/, ‘he works a blessing’ M-R (RS 2.[004]+ i 35ʹ)
    G PC 3ms {yšt}: /yašītu/, ‘he places’ (RS 2.002:38)
    ...
    G PC 3fs energic –an(na) {trġn}: /tarūġan/, ‘she turns’ (RS 24.244:61)
    G PC 2ms + 3ms {tmrnn}, /tamīrannannu/, ‘may you work a blessing’ (RS 2.[004]+ i 24ʹ)
    ...
    PC 1cs {a̓bn}: /ʔabīn-/,{a͗bn}: /ʾabīn-/, ‘I understand’
    ...
    short form /ʔabin//ʾabin/ √B-N (RS
    ...
    PC 1cs {u̓bu̓}: /ʔubūʔu/{u͗bu͗}: /ʾubūʾu/ < *ʔabūʔu,*ʾabūʾu, ‘I enter’ √B-ʔ√B-ʾ (RIH 78/20:18)
    ...
    PC 1cs {u̓ba̓}: /ʔubūʔa/{u͗ba͗}: /ʾubūʾa/ < *ʔabūʔa,*ʾabūʾa, ‘that I might enter’ √B-ʔ√B-ʾ (RS 24.244:72)
    G PC 3md {tṣḥn}: /taṣīḥāni/, ‘they cried out’ (RS 2.[003]+ vi 43)
    G PC 3mp {tknn}: /takūnūna/, ‘they are/appear’ (RS 15.128:6, 9)
    G PC 3mp {tgr}: /tagūrū/, ‘you dwell’ (RS 2.002:66)
    ...
    ‘they hunt’ √ṣ-D√Ṣ-D (RS 24.258:23)
    G Inf {mtk}: /mātika/, ‘your dying’ (RS 3.325+ i 15)
    G Inf + 2fs suffix {ḥšk}: /ḥāšuki/, ‘hurry’ (lit. your hurrying) √Ḥ-Š (RS 2.[014]+ iii 18ʹ)
    ...
    G Imv fs {št}: /šītī/ (RS 2.[014]+ iii 15)
    G Ptc ms {ṭḫ}: /tāḫu/, ‘someone who plasters’ √Ṭ-Ḥ (RS 2.[004]+ i 32ʹ)
    ...
    Ptc ms {nʕr}: /naʕāru/,{nʿr}: /naʿāru/, ‘he awakes’ √ʕ-R√ʿ-R (RS 24.258:28ʹ)
    L PC 2ms {tnrr}: /tvnāriru/, ‘you shall illuminate’ (transitive) √N-R (RS 24.266:9)
    L PC 3md {trmm}: /tvrāmima/ √R-M (RS 2.[008]+ vi 17)
    ...
    Št PC 1cs {ı̓štql}: /ʔištaqīlu/ √Q-L, ‘I will enter’ (RS 24.244:72)
    II-ʔ
    ...
    PC 1cs {ı̓la̓k}: /ʔilʔaku/,{ı͗la͗k}: /ʾilʾaku/, ‘I will send’ √L-ʔ-K√L-ʾ-K (RS 16.379:20)
    ...
    PC 3fs {tlu̓}: /tilʔû/,{tlu͗}: /tilʾû/, ‘it is weak’ √L-ʔ-W(?)√L-ʾ-W(?) (RS 24.244:68)
    ...
    PC 2fs {tlı̓kn}: /talaʔʔikīna/,{tlı͗kn}: /talaʾʾikīna/, ‘you will send’ √L-ʔ-K√L-ʾ-K (RS 34.124:10)
    ...
    SC 3ms {ı̓štı̓r}: /ʔištaʔira/,{ı͗štı͗r}: /ʾištaʾira/, ‘it remains’ √Š-ʔ-R√Š-ʾ-R (RS 17.297:3)
    ...
    PC 3ms *{yštı̓l}: /yištaʔil-/,*{yštı͗l}: /yištaʾil-/, ‘he asks’ √Š-ʔ-L√Š-ʾ-L (theoretical)
    tD PC 3ms {yšta̓l}: /yištaʔʔal-/{yšta͗l}: /yištaʾʾal-/ < *yitšaʔʔal-,*yitšaʾʾal-, ‘he asks’ √Š-ʔ-L√Š-ʾ-L (RS 18.113
    ...
    PC 3ms {yšta̓l}: /yištaʔʔal-/{yšta͗l}: /yištaʾʾal-/ < *yitšaʔʔal-,*yitšaʾʾal-, ‘he asks’ √Š-ʔ-L√Š-ʾ-L (RS 29.093:12)
    ...
    PC 3ms {yšta̓l}: /yištaʔʔal-/{yšta͗l}: /yištaʾʾal-/ < *yitšaʔʔal-,*yitšaʾʾal-, ‘he asks’ √Š-ʔ-L√Š-ʾ-L (RS 29.095:10)
    II-h
    ...
    SC 3ms {yu̓hb}: /yaʔuhub-/{yu͗hb}: /yaʾuhub-/ or /yuʔuhub-/,/yuʾuhub-/, as opposed
    II/III
    G SC 3ms/Inf(?) {sb}: /sabba/ or /sabbu/
    ...
    G PC 3ms with long energic suffixal ending {ybṯ . nn}: /yabuṯṯannannu/ (RS 3.367 iv 31’)
    G PC 2cd {tṭṭ}: /taṭṭuṭā/ < *tanṭuṭā, ‘(her legs) rattle’ (2.[014]+ iii 33ʹ)
    ...
    2fs suffix {ʕṣk}: /ʕaṣûki/,{ʿṣk}: /ʿaṣûki/, ‘press’ (lit. your pressing) √ʕ-Ṣ-Y√ʿ-Ṣ-Y or √ʕ-Ṣ-Ṣ√ʿ-Ṣ-Ṣ (RS 2.[014]+
    G Imv ms {dm} √dmm? dim(a) yōma wa ṯanâ, ‘rest for a day and another’ (RS 2.[003]+ III 10)
    G Imv ms {bṯ}:/ buṯ(ṯa)/, ‘scatter’ √B-Ṯ-Ṯ (RS 3.367 iv 28ʹ, 29ʹ)
    G Imv ms + 1cs sfx + enclitic {ḥnny} : /ḥunnanīya/, ‘Show me grace (before the king)’ √Ḥ-N-N (RS 15.007:3)
    Gp 3ms {rš}: /rušša/, ‘he (Kirta) was crushed’ < */rušaša/ or */rušiša/ √R-Š-Š (RS 2.[003]+ i 10)
    ...
    PC 3mp {tʕzzk}: /taʕazzizūka/,{tʿzzk}: /taʿazzizūka/, ‘may (the
    ...
    strengthen you’ √ʕ-Z-Z√ʿ-Z-Z (RS 1.018:4-6)
    Gt PC 3ms energic {ystrn}: /yistarranna/, ‘let the Beloved trust/tell/medidate(?)’ (CAT 1.4 vii 48)
    L SC 3fs {tḥrr}: /taḥāriru/, ‘(a bird) is roasting’ √Ḥ-R-R (RS 2.002:41)
    ...
    PC 3ms {yʕzz}: /yaʕāzizu/,{yʿzz}: /yaʿāzizu/, ‘the king
    ...
    more powerful’ √ʕ-Z-Z√ʿ-Z-Z (RS 24.247+:57ʹ)
    L/D PC 3ms {yšnn}: /yašāninu/, ‘he grinds/ground (his teeth)’ √Š-N-N (CAT 1.16 i 13)
    L/D PC 3ms + enclitic {yhrrm}: /yahāriruma/, ‘he became inflamed’ √H-R-R (CAT 1.12 i 39)
    ...
    hand of ʔIlu)ʾIlu) arouse you?’
    L PC 3fs {tqnn}: /taqāninu/, ‘(the scorpion) will stand erect’ √Q-N-N (RS 92.2014:5, 7
    ...
    ‘you commit aan immoral act’
    ...
    PC 1cs {a̓rnn}: /ʔarāninu/,{a͗rnn}: /ʾarāninu/, ‘I will
    R PC 3ms {yqṯqṯ}: /yaqaṯqiṯu/, ‘he drags (his cup)’ < √Q-Ṯ-Ṯ (RS 24.258:5)
    III-ʔIII-ʾ
    G SC 3ms {yṣa̓}:{yṣa͗}: / yaṣaʔa/,yaṣaʾa/, ‘(the word)
    ...
    jussive/neg command {yṣı̓}: /yaṣiʔ/,{yṣı͗}: /yaṣiʾ/, ‘may (nothing)
    ...
    your mouth),’ (rs94.2406:39)(RS 94.2406:39)
    G PC 3ms volitive {ymẓa̓}{ymẓa͗} : /yimẓaʔa/,/yimẓaʾa/, ‘that he
    ...
    PC 1cs {u̓ba̓}: /ʔubūʔa/{u͗ba͗}: /ʾubūʾa/ < *ʔabūʔa,*ʾabūʾa, ‘that I might enter’ √B-ʔ√B-ʾ (RS 24.244:72)
    ...
    PC 1cs {u̓bu̓}: /ʔubūʔu/,{u͗bu͗}: /ʾubūʾu/, ‘I will
    ...
    PC 1cs {˹ı̓˺qra̓}: /ʔiqraʔa/,{˹ı͗˺qra͗}: /ʾiqraʾa/, ‘I call
    ...
    PC 2ms {tbı̓}: /tabuʔ/{tbı͗}: /tabuʾ/ or /tabū(ʔ)/,/tabū(ʾ)/, ‘you must
    ...
    PC 2ms {tḫṭı̓n}: /tiḫṭaʔna/{tḫṭı͗n}: /tiḫṭaʾna/
    G PC 3fs {tqru̓}: /tiqraʔu/,{tqru͗}: /tiqraʾu/, ‘she calls’
    ...
    PC 3fs {trpa̓}: /tirpaʔa/,{trpa͗}: /tirpaʾa/, ‘(when) she
    ...
    Imv ms {ša̓}: /šaʔa/{ša͗}: /šaʾa/ < √nšʔ,√nšʾ, ‘lift up
    ...
    Ptc fs {qrı̓t}: /qāriʔtu/,{qrı͗t}: /qāriʾtu/, ‘she calls’
    ...
    SC 3ms {mla̓}: /millaʔa/,{mla͗}: /millaʾa/, ‘he filled’
    ...
    SC 3ms {šsʕn}: /šassiʕanī/,{šsʿn}: /šassiʿanī/, ‘he made
    III-w/y
    G SC
    ...
    3ms QTLa {ʕl}: /ʕala/{ʿl}: /ʿala/ or /ʕalâ//ʿalâ/ < *ʕalaya*ʿalaya
    G SC 3ms {ʕly}: /ʕalay/{ʿly}: /ʿalay/ or /ʕalaya//ʿalaya/ (probably an
    G SC 3ms {pdy}: /padaya/, ‘he redeemed’ (CAT 3.4:2)
    G SC 3ms/Inf {yr}: /yara/ or /yarâ/ < yaraya, ‘he casts’ (Inf yarû) √Y-R-Y (RS 2.002:38)
    G SC 3ms/Inf {kr}: /kara/ or Inf /karû/ √K-R-Y (RS 24.258:14)
    ...
    SC 3fs {sʕt}: /saʕât/,{sʿt}: /saʿât/, ‘she flees,’ < √S-ʕ-Y√S-ʿ-Y (RS 2.[003]+
    G SC 2ms {bnt}: /banêta/, /banîta/, or /banōta/, < √bny, ‘you have built’
    G SC 1cs {ṯnt}: /ṯanêtu/ or /ṯanîtu/ < *ṯanaytu (RS 3.367 iv 8’)
    ...
    G SC 3mp {phnn}: /pahûnannu/, ‘they saw him?’ (CAT 2.62:6’)
    G PC, Imv
    ...
    3ms indicative {yʕl}: /yaʕli/,{yʿl}: /yaʿli/, ‘he will
    ...
    bed)’ < *yaʕlî*yaʿlî < * yaʕliyuyaʿliyu (RS 2.[004]+
    G PC 3ms indicative {ymġy}: /yamġiyu/, ‘he arrived’ (1.14 iv 47)
    G PC 3ms indicative {yḥdy}: /yaḥdiyu/, ‘he will see’ (RS 24.277:32)
    G PC 3ms {ybky}: /yabkiyu/, ‘he weeps’ (RS 2.[003]+ i 26)
    ...
    3ms jussive {yı̓p}: /yaʔpi/,{yı͗p}: /yaʾpi/, ‘he must
    ...
    I 37; rs20.396RS 20.396 Aa [KTU/CAT
    G PC 3ms jussive {ybk} √bky: /yabki/ < *yabkiy
    G PC 3ms jussive {yšt} √šty: /yišta/ < *yištay < *yaštayu
    ...
    G PC 3ms, energic and suffixal {ysynh}: /yassiyannaha/, ‘he banishes it’ √N-S-Y (RS 24.244:66)
    G PC 3fs short form {tph} √phy: /tipha/, ‘(Anat) sees’ (CAT 1.3 iii 32)
    ...
    PC 3fs {tlu̓}: /tilʔû/,{tlu͗}: /tilʾû/, ‘it is weak’ √L-ʔ-W(?)√L-ʾ-W(?) (RS 24.244:68)
    ...
    1cs optative {a̓šlw}{a͗šlw} √šlw: /ʔašluwa/,/ʾašluwa/, ‘that I
    ...
    PC 1cs {a̓mr[hm]}: /ʔamrihumu/,{a͗mr[hm]}: /ʾamrihumu/, ‘I will
    ...
    PC 1cs {ı̓bġyh}: /ʔibġayuhu/,{ı͗bġyh}: /ʾibġayuhu/, ‘I will
    ...
    2fs suffix {a̓ṯnyk}: /ʔaṯniyakki/{a͗ṯnyk}: /ʾaṯniyakki/ < /ʔaṯniyanki//ʾaṯniyanki/ √Ṯ-N-Y (RS
    ...
    accusative suffix): {yʕnyn}: /yaʕniyāna/{yʿnyn}: /yaʿniyāna/ (CAT 1.3
    ...
    PC 3mp {tʕnyn}: /taʕniyūna/,{tʿnyn}: /taʿniyūna/, ‘they respond’ √ʕ-N-Y√ʿ-N-Y (RS 2.002:12)
    G PC 2fd {tṣḥn}: /taṣīḥāna/, ‘they cry out’ √Ṣ-Ḥ (RS 2.002:39)
    G PC 1cp indic {nšt}: ništû? < *ništayu
    ...
    G Inf {bk}: /bakî/(?), ‘weeping’ (RS 2.[003]+ ii 7)
    G Inf {hg}: /hagû/(?), ‘counting, telling’ (RS 2.[003]+ ii 38)
    G Inf {a̓n}: /ʔanû/(?),{a͗n}: /ʾanû/(?), or G
    G SC 3ms/Inf {yr}: /yara/ or /yarâ/ < yaraya, ‘he casts’ (Inf. yarû) √Y-R-Y (RS 2.002:38)
    G SC 3ms/Inf {kr}: /kara/ or Inf /karû/ √K-R-Y (RS 24.258:14)
    ...
    2fs suffix {ʕṣk}: /ʕaṣûki/,{ʿṣk}: /ʿaṣûki/, ‘press’ (lit. your pressing) √ʕ-Ṣ-Y√ʿ-Ṣ-Y or √ʕ-Ṣ-Ṣ√ʿ-Ṣ-Ṣ (RS 2.[014]+
    G Ptc m.s. {bny}: /bāniyu/, ‘the creator’ (RS 2.[004]+ i 24ʹ)
    G Ptc f.s. {štt}: /šatûti/ genitive, ‘woven’ (CAT 4.337:9)
    ...
    D PC 3ms {yšqy}: /yašaqqiyu/, ‘he gives drink’ (RS 2.[004]+ i 10ʹ)
    D PC 3ms {ypt}: /yapattû/, ‘he seduces’ (RS 2.002:39)
    ...
    and suffixal {yʕdynh}: /yaʕaddiyannaha/,{yʿdynh}: /yaʿaddiyannaha/, ‘he makes
    D PC 3ms, energic and suffixal {ylšn}: /yalaššinnu/ < *yalaššiyan+hu, ‘he knocks him over’ √L-Š-Y (RS 24.258:20)
    D PC 2ms (negative) jussive {tġl}: /taġalli/ < taġalliyu (CAT 1.3 i 1)
    D Imv ms {gr . nn}: /garrinnanna/, < √gry, ‘attack it’ (RS 2.[003]+ iii 6)
    D Imv fs {qryy}: /qarriyīya/, ‘present’ √Q-R-Y (RS 2.[014]+ iii 14ʹ)
    ...
    SC 3ms {šʕly}: /šaʕliya/,{šʿly}: /šaʿliya/, ‘he set up’ (rs6.028:1)(RS 6.028:1)
    Š SC 3fs {šʕlyt}: /šaʕliyat/,{šʿlyt}: /šaʿliyat/, ‘she set up’ (rs6.021:1)(RS 6.021:1)
    Š PC 3ms long form with suffix {yšqynh}: /yašqiyannahu/ (CAT 1.3 i 9)
    ...
    negative command {tšʕl}: /tašaʕli/,{tšʿl}: /tašaʿli/, ‘(do not)
    Št Imv md {tštḥwy}: /tištaḥwiyā/ (CAT 1.3 iii 10)
    ...
    nominative oblique {mštʕltm}: /muštaʕilatêma/,{mštʿltm}: /muštaʿilatêma/, ‘two females
    Doubly Weak Roots
    G Stative Ptc f.s. + genitival suffix {ṯth}: /ṯâtihu/, < Ṯ-W-Y, ‘his lodging’ (CAT 3.3/RS 15.128:4)
    ...
    SC 2ms {a̓twt}: /ʔatawāta/??,{a͗twt}: /ʾatawāta/??, ‘you have
    ...
    SC 3fs? /ʔatawat//ʾatawat/
    G PC 2cd {tṭṭ}: /taṭṭuṭā/ < *tanṭuṭā, ‘(her legs) rattle’ (2.[014]+ iii 33ʹ)
    G PC 3ms {yd}: /yaddû/, ‘he casts off’ < N-D-Y (RS 2.[004]+ i 3ʹ, 4ʹ)
    G PC 3ms {yḥ}: /yaḥî/, ‘may he live’ < Ḥ-Y-Y (RS 2.[004]+ i 36ʹ)
    G PC 3ms, energic and suffixal {ysynh}: /yassiyannaha/, ‘he banishes it’ √N-S-Y (RS 24.244:66)
    ...
    PC 3fp? {tı̓t}: /taʔtū/,{tı͗t}: /taʾtū/, ‘(the gods
    ...
    come’ < *taʔtiyū √ʔ-T-W*taʾtiyū √ʾ-T-W
    G PC 3fp? {tı̓ty}: /taʔtiyū/,{tı͗ty}: /taʾtiyū/, ‘(the gods
    ...
    and) went’ √ʔ-T-W√ʾ-T-W (CAT 1.15
    ...
    Imv ms {a̓t}: /ʔati/{a͗t}: /ʾati/ < *ʔatî <*ʔatiy,*ʾatî <*ʾatiy, ‘come’ (RS
    ...
    Imv ms {a̓tm}: /ʔatîma/,{a͗tm}: /ʾatîma/, ‘come’ < √ʔ-T-W√ʾ-T-W (RS 2.[014]+
    ...
    PC 1cs {ı̓ts}: /ʔittasi/,{ı͗ts}: /ʾittasi/, ‘I will
    Št Imv md {tštḥwy}: /tištaḥwiyā/, ‘do homage’ √Ḥ-W-Y (RS 2.[014]+ iii 10ʹ)
    ...
    ‘beautify’ < *tiY1taP2aY3P2iY3u*tiY₁taP₂aY₃P₂iY₃u √Y-P-Y (RS
    √YTN or NTN
    The G PC forms suggest that the Ugaritic verbs are formed on the theoretical biconsonantal root T-N (Manual, 54-55).
    ...
    G PC 3fs {ttb}: /tatin-/, ‘she pronounced (lit. gives her voice)’ (RS 3.367 iv 6’)
    G PC 2ms {ttn}: /tatin-/ (1.14 iii 38)
    ...
    PC 1cs {a̓tn}: /ʔatin-/{a͗tn}: /ʾatin-/ or /ʔattin-//ʾattin-/
    G Imv ms {tn}: /tin/ (1.14 iii 39; RS 24.244:73)
    Š SC 3ms {štn}: /šatin-/ < T-N, /šōtina/ <W-T-N, or /šattin-/ < N-T-N
    (view changes)
    10:09 am
  2. page Comp. Semitic Verb edited ... Qal qatala faʕala faʿala qātal yaqtala yafʕalu yafʿalu yiqtōl qutala fu…
    ...
    Qal
    qatala
    faʕalafaʿala
    qātal
    yaqtala
    yafʕaluyafʿalu
    yiqtōl
    qutala
    fuʕilafuʿila
    yuqtalu
    yufʕaluyufʿalu
    qātilu
    fāʕilunfāʿilun
    qōtēl
    qatūlu
    mafʕūlunmafʿūlun
    qātūl
    D
    ...
    Piel
    qittala
    faʕʕalafaʿʿala
    qittēl
    yaqattilu
    yufaʕʕiluyufaʿʿilu
    yeqattēl
    quttila
    fuʕʕilafuʿʿila
    quttal
    yaqattalu
    yufaʕʕaluyufaʿʿalu
    yequttal
    muqattilu
    mufaʕʕilunmufaʿʿilun
    meqattēl
    maqattalu?
    mufaʕʕalunmufaʿʿalun
    mequttal
    N
    ...
    Niphal
    naqtala
    infaʕalainfaʿala
    niqtal
    yiqqatilu
    yanfaʕiluyanfaʿilu
    yeqātēl
    NA
    NA
    niqtalu
    munfaʕilunmunfaʿilun
    niqtāl
    NA
    munfaʕalunmunfaʿalun
    NA
    Š
    ...
    Hiphil
    šaqti/ala
    ʔafʕalaʾafʿala
    hiqtîyl
    yašaqtilu
    yufʕiluyufʿilu
    yaqtîyl
    šuqtala
    ʔufʕilaʾufʿila
    hu/oqtal
    yušaqtalu
    yufʕaluyufʿalu
    yu/oqtal
    mušaqtilu
    mufʕilunmufʿilun
    maqtîyl
    *mušaqtalu?
    mufʕalunmufʿalun
    mu/oqtal
    Gt
    VIII
    ʔiqtatila
    iftaʕala
    ʾiqtatila
    iftaʿala

    yiqtatilu
    yaftaʕiluyaftaʿilu
    NA
    uftiʕilauftiʿila
    NA
    yuftaʕalu
    muftaʕilun
    yuftaʿalu
    muftaʿilun

    *
    muftaʕalunmuftaʿalun
    tD
    V
    Hithpael
    taqattala
    tafaʕʕalatafaʿʿala
    hitqattēl
    yVtqattalu
    yatafaʕʕaluyatafaʿʿalu
    yitqattēl
    NA
    tufuʕʕilutufuʿʿilu
    NA
    NA
    yutafaʕʕaluyutafaʿʿalu
    NA
    mutafaʕʕilunmutafaʿʿilun
    mitqattēl
    *
    mutafaʕʕalunmutafaʿʿalun
    NA
    L
    ...
    Pōʕēl
    qālala
    fāʕalafāʿala
    qōtēl
    yaqālilu
    yufāʕiluyufāʿilu
    NA?
    NA
    fūʕilafūʿila
    qōtal
    NA
    yufāʕaluyufāʿalu
    NA?
    mufāʕilunmufāʿilun
    *
    mufāʕalunmufāʿalun
    R
    Pilpēl
    ...
    Arabic VIth stem would correspond to a theoretical and unattested tL-stem in Ugaritic.
    Arabic Xth stem corresponds to Hebrew Ištaphel, but is unattested in Ugaritic.

    (view changes)
    9:43 am
  3. page Paradigms-G and Derived edited ... kataba kabida laʔuka yaktubu yimẓaʔa yaktub laʾuka yaktubu yimẓaʾa yaktub 3f …
    ...
    kataba
    kabida
    laʔuka
    yaktubu
    yimẓaʔa
    yaktub
    laʾuka
    yaktubu
    yimẓaʾa
    yaktub

    3f
    katabat
    taktubu
    taktub

    taktubu
    taktub

    2m
    katabta
    taktubu
    taktub
    kutub(a)

    taktubu
    taktub
    kutub(a)

    2f
    katabti
    taktubī(na)
    taktubī
    kutubī

    taktubī(na)
    taktubī
    kutubī

    1c
    katab(ā)tu
    aktubu
    ʔiphâ
    ʔaktub, ʔipha

    ʾaktubu
    ʾiphâ
    ʾaktub, ʾipha

    Dual
    3m
    katabā(?)
    yaktubā (na)
    taktubā (na)
    yaktubā

    yaktubā
    or taktubā
    3f
    katabtā?
    taktubā

    taktubā
    (na)
    taktubā

    taktubā

    2m
    katabtumā
    taktubā

    taktubā
    (na)
    taktubā
    kutubā

    taktubā
    kutubā

    2f
    -
    -
    -

    -
    -

    1c
    katabnāyā(?)
    naktubā
    ništâna (indic)

    naktubā
    ništâna (indic)
    naktubā

    Pluarl
    3m
    katabū
    yaktubū

    yaktubū
    (na) (only
    ...
    taktubū (na)
    yaktubū

    yaktubū
    or taktubū
    3f
    katabā
    taktub(ā)na(?)
    taktubā

    taktub(ā)na(?)
    taktubā

    2m
    katabtum(u)
    taktubū(na)
    taktubū
    kutubū

    taktubū(na)
    taktubū
    kutubū

    2f
    katabtin(n)a
    taktubna
    taktubna(?)
    kutubā

    taktubna
    taktubna(?)
    kutubā

    1c
    katabnū
    naktubu
    ništû (indic)
    naktub
    ništa (Ø-form)
    ništâ (cohort)
    - ktb is a very rare verbal root in Ugaritic.
    - For the difference between the plural forms with –ū versus those with –ūna, Bordreuil and Pardee (Manual, 64) tentatively suggest that the long form is the indicative and the short form the jussive.
    ...
    Function
    G
    QaTaLa (QaTuLa/QaTiLa)
    yaQTuLu

    yaQTuLu
    (yiQTaL-/yaQTiL-)
    active,

    active,
    stative, motion
    D
    QiTTaLa
    yaQaTTiLu
    factitive

    yaQaTTiLu
    factitive

    N
    naQTaLa
    yiQQaTiLu

    yiQQaTiLu
    < *yinQaTilu
    middle/passive

    middle/passive

    Š
    šaQTiLa
    yašaQTiLu
    causative

    yašaQTiLu
    causative

    L
    QāLaLa
    yaQāLiLu
    intensive

    yaQāLiLu
    intensive
    or factitive
    R
    QaLQaLa
    yaQaLQiLu
    factitive

    yaQaLQiLu
    factitive

    tR/Rt
    ?
    yQtLQL/ytQLQL
    factitive-reflexive

    yQtLQL/ytQLQL
    factitive-reflexive

    Gp
    QuTaLa
    yuQTaLu
    passive

    yuQTaLu
    passive
    of G
    Dp
    QuTTiLa
    yaQaTTaLu
    passive

    yaQaTTaLu
    passive
    of D
    Šp
    šuQTaLa
    yušaQTaLu
    passive

    yušaQTaLu
    passive
    of Š
    Gt
    ʔiQtaTiLa
    yiQtaTiLu
    middle/reflexive
    ʾiQtaTiLa
    yiQtaTiLu
    middle/reflexive

    tD
    taQaTTaLa
    yVtQaTTaLu
    middle/reflexive

    yVtQaTTaLu
    middle/reflexive

    Št
    ʔištaQTiLa
    yištaQTiLu
    middle/reflexive
    ʾištaQTiLa
    yištaQTiLu
    middle/reflexive
    (lexicalized?)
    *Dt
    Comments:
    ...
    the forms {ı̓hb}{ı͗hb} and {ı̓hbt};{ı͗hbt}; Huehnergard suggests
    ...
    ii 5 {a̓mı̓d}{a͗mı͗d} : /ʔamaʔʔida/,/ʾamaʾʾida/, ‘I will
    ...
    the 1cs {a̓šhlk}, {a̓šld}, {a̓šʕrb},{a͗šhlk}, {a͗šld}, {a͗šʿrb}, and the
    ...
    the 3ms {yššı̓l} /yašašʔilu/,{yššı͗l} /yašašʾilu/, thus the
    ...
    PC 1cs {a̓rnn}{a͗rnn} (RS 15.134:6).
    L-stem semantics: According to Pardee (review of Tropper UG, 279), the L-stem “appears to express roughly the semantics [of the D-stem] in the hollow roots but not in the geminate roots.” Bordreuil and Pardee (Manual, 44) explain that the L-stem is characterized by a “lengthened vowel after first radical and reduplicated second/third radical; intensive or factitive in function.”
    ...
    PC: cf. {u̓ša̓l}: /ʔušʔalu/,{u͗ša͗l}: /ʾušʾalu/, “I was
    Gt PC: cf. (RS 3.367 iv 13′, 15′) {trtqṣ}, {yrtqṣ}; and UVST, 402.
    ...
    provided by {yšta̓l} /yištaʔʔalu/{yšta͗l} /yištaʾʾalu/ < */yitšaʔʔalu/.*/yitšaʾʾalu/.
    Dt-stem: Is there such a stem as Dt? Tropper (UG) doesn’t list one. Q: Why should there be Gt and Št and no Dt? A: Because “it would be unprecedented for a language to exhibit both tD and Dt as distinct conjugations” (UVST, 402).
    Imperative-G
    ...
    Plural
    Masculine
    ...
    QiTiL, Qi/aTiL
    ʕarabāba

    ʿarabāba
    (?)RS 2.[014]+
    ...
    (-ā ??)
    Feminine
    QuTuLī
    QuTuLā

    QuTuLā

    Imperative—Derived Stems
    N
    ʔikkabidʾikkabid
    Š
    šakbid
    ...
    kabbid
    Št
    *ʔištakbVd*ʾištakbVd
    Gt
    ʔiktabVdʾiktabVd
    Participles G-Stem
    Active
    ...
    Plural
    Masc
    qātilu
    -ūma

    -ūma

    Fem
    ...
    -tu, -ah(?)
    -ātu

    -ātu

    Stative
    Masc
    qatilu, qatulu
    -ūma

    -ūma

    Fem
    -atu, -tu
    -ātu

    -ātu

    Passive
    Masc
    qatūlu
    -ūma

    -ūma

    Fem
    -atu, -tu
    -ātu

    -ātu

    Comments:
    G Ptc f.s.: cf. RS 2.[004]+ i 42 (CAT 1.17) {ylt}, /yālittu/ < *yālidtu; cf. RS 2.[003]+ iii 8 {ḥṭbh}, /ḥāṭibah/, “straw-inspectrix”
    ...
    N-stem: Of the Semitic languages, only Ugaritic, Phoenician and Hebrew have an N-stem participle without preformative {m}; cf. Arabic and Akkadian with preformative {m}, (Aramaic has no N stem).
    Infinitives
    Strong
    II-w/y

    II-w/y

    G (common form?)
    qatālu
    qâmu
    G (rare form?)
    qitlu
    qūmu?

    qūmu?

    D
    quttalu
    NA

    NA

    N
    naqtālu
    NA

    NA

    Š
    šaqtilu
    ?

    ?

    Comments:
    N-stem: This would certainly have been the proto-Ugaritic form, but we cannot tell if it was also the standard Ugaritic form; or perhaps /niqtālu/.
    (view changes)
    9:41 am
  4. page Numbers edited ... ‘Tens’ 1 ʔaḥḥadu, ʔaḥḥattu, ʾaḥḥadu, ʾaḥḥattu, and ʕšty ʿšty 2 ṯinâ, ṯittâ ṯanû ʕ…
    ...
    ‘Tens’
    1
    ʔaḥḥadu, ʔaḥḥattu,ʾaḥḥadu, ʾaḥḥattu, and ʕštyʿšty
    2
    ṯinâ, ṯittâ
    ṯanû
    ʕašrāma,ʿašrāma, ‘twenty’
    3
    ṯalāṯu, ṯalāṯau
    ...
    ṯalāṯūma, ‘thirty’
    4
    ʔarbaʕu, ʔarbaʕ(a)tu
    rabīʕu
    ʔarbaʕūma
    ʾarbaʿu, ʾarbaʿ(a)tu
    rabīʿu
    ʾarbaʿūma

    5
    ḫamišu, ḫam(i)šatu?
    ...
    ṯiṯṯūma
    7
    šabʕu, šabʕatu
    šabīʕu
    šabʕūma
    šabʿu, šabʿatu
    šabīʿu
    šabʿūma

    8
    ṯamānû, ṯamānatu?
    ...
    ṯamāniyūma
    9
    tišʕu, tišʕatu
    tašīʕu
    tišʕūma
    tišʿu, tišʿatu
    tašīʿu
    tišʿūma

    10
    ʕaš(a)ru, ʕaš(a)ratu,ʿaš(a)ru, ʿaš(a)ratu, and ʕšrhʿšrh
    11
    ʕaštê ʕašri(hu)ʿaštê ʿašri(hu)
    12
    ṯn ʕšr(h),ʿšr(h), ṯiṯṯatāma
    100
    miʔtumiʾtu (sg.) , miʔātumiʾātu (pl.)
    200
    miʔtāma/imiʾtāma/i
    1000
    ʔalpuʾalpu
    10,000
    rabbātu
    ...
    Cardinal numbers are nouns, ordinal numbers are adjectives.
    Ugaritic does not follow chiastic concord.
    ...
    together with ʕšrt,ʿšrt, ‘10’, see
    ...
    and ṯnt ʕšrtʿšrt 4.146:8 is
    ...
    to ṯmnt ʕšrtʿšrt ’18 (shekels)’,
    ...
    ṯqlm kbd ʕšrtʿšrt or ʕšrtʿšrt ṯqlm kbd).
    ṯn/ṯt: These forms constitute an isogloss with Akkadian šine against the other West Semitic languages (e.g., Hebrew šnayim).
    ṯlṯ: Cf. the unusual form ṯlṯtm in RS 94.2184+:12, 13. It is unclear if this form is a technical noun referring to a group of three or something more mundane. It could just be the number, either the feminine form with the enclitic particle –m or the masculine form with two enclitic particles. Like ṯlṯtm, there is also ḫmštm (, the meaning of which is uncertain. See the previous note on ṯlṯtm.
    ʕšrh:ʿšrh: “The alternate
    ṯṯtm: Wesselius (1980, 449), “The explanation of these numerals as duals (meaning ‘12’ and ‘6’ respectively), although in itself not impossible, does not take into account that they are found both times in successive entries in a list.”
    Multiplicatives
    ...
    adverbial element –ı̓d–ı͗d , ‘at
    ...
    ‘seven’ as ṯnı̓dṯnı͗d and šbʕı̓dšbʿı͗d (or šbʕd).šbʿd). Cf. BH ʔāz.ʾāz.
    Numeral Syntax
    ...
    ṯiṯṯūma [lê] miʔtimiʾti ṯalāṯu kubda
    ...
    bnšm; cf. (Tropper 2000,Tropper (2000, §69.132 and
    Cardinal
    11 ʕaštê ʕašruʿaštê ʿašru ḥarrāšu, ‘eleven
    ...
    7)
    11h ʕaštê ʕašrih bn[š mlk],ʿaštê ʿašrih bunu[šū malki], ‘eleven men
    ...
    ḫzr dt tbʕlntbʿln b GN,
    ...

    12h tinâ ʕašrihʿašrih dudu, ‘twelve
    ...

    13 ṯalāṯu ʕašruʿašru bunušu, ‘thirteen
    ...

    13h ṯalāṯu ʕašrih,ʿašrih, ‘thirteen (jars
    ...
    (RS 16.179:3) [ʕgl[ʿgl (4.783:4)]
    14 ʔarbaʕu ʕašruʾarbaʿu ʿašru bunušu, ‘fourteen
    ...
    19.045:5)
    14h ʔarbaʕu ʕašrihʾarbaʿu ʿašrih šadû, ‘fourteen
    15
    15h ḫamišu ʕašrihʿašrih šīrūma, ‘fifteen
    ...
    (RS 18.130:1), mlủnmlu͗n (RS 1.001:10)]
    16
    16h ṯiṯṯu ʕašrihʿašrih yênu, ‘sixteen
    17
    17h šaʕaratu šabʕu ʕašrih,šaʿaratu šabʿu ʿašrih, ‘wool, seventeen
    18
    18h ṯamānû ʕašrihʿašrih MRYN, ‘eighteen
    ...
    4.771:6)]
    19 tišʕu ʕa[šrutišʿu ʿa[šru bunušūma], ‘nineteen
    ...
    8.279:5)
    19h tišʕu ʕašrihtišʿu ʿašrih dudu, ‘nineteen
    ...
    24.291:1)]
    213h miʔtāmamiʾtāma ṯalāṯu ʕašrihʿašrih kadbu, ‘213
    ONES + lê + TENS + (counted item)
    tišʕutišʿuʕašrêmaʿašrêma [no noun
    ...

    ṯamānû lê ʔarbaʕīmaʾarbaʿīma [no noun
    ...

    ṯiṯṯu lê ʕašrêmaʿašrêma bunušū malki,
    TENS + ONES + kbd (tgmr)
    ḫamišūma kaddu = 50 kaddūma
    ḫamišūma kaddu kubda = 51 kaddūma (RS 94.2392+)
    OR ʕašrāma ʔaḥḥaduʿašrāma ʾaḥḥadu kubda ḫassanūma,
    ḫamišūma ṯiṯṯu kubda kaddu = 56 kaddūma
    ḫamišūma ṯamānû kubda tagmaru bunušī malki, ‘fifty-eight total men of the king’ (RS 15.022+ ii 25-26)
    tišʕūmatišʿūma ṯiṯṯu kubda
    ...
    (RS 15.015+:9)
    ʕašrāma ʔaḥdu

    ʿašrāma ʾaḥdu
    kubda ḫassanūma,
    ...
    YṢḤīma ṯalāṯūma ʔaḥduʾaḥdu kubda bunušū
    ...
    iv 33′-37′)
    šabʕu miʔātu šaʕartu

    šabʿu miʾātu šaʿartu
    ḫamišūma kubda,
    NEED A SECTION WITH TENS + ONES W/O KBD; CF. TROPPER §62.42
    ONES + kbd + TENS
    ḫamišu kubda ʔarbaʕūma [šaʔuratu],ʾarbaʿūma [šaʾuratu], ‘45 daggers’
    ...

    ḫamišu kubda ʔarbaʕūmaʾarbaʿūma dūdu ʔaklu,ʾaklu, ‘45 measures
    ṯamānû kubda ṯiṯṯūma šamnu, ‘68 measures of oil’ (RS 17.399)
    ʔaḥduʾaḥdu kubda ʔarbaʕūmaʾarbaʿūma bi ḫāziri laqaḥū šaʕrati,šaʿrati, ‘41 among
    HUNDREDS + TENS + kbd + ONES + kbd
    miʔtāmamiʾtāma ṯalāṯūma kubda / ʔaḥḥaduʾaḥḥadu kubda, ‘231
    ...
    20.009:13-14)
    Cf. KTU 4.387:11f., 4.397:10f.,
    Ordinal
    bi ṯāliṯi šanati, ‘On the third (day) of the year,’ (RS 15.115:60) [nominalized adjective in construct]
    ...
    ṯādiṯa yōma tiʔkalu ʔišatutiʾkalu ʾišatu bi bahatīma,
    maġdâ ṯādiṯi yaraḫīma, ‘nourishment for the sixth month’ (lit. sixth as to months) (RS 2.[003]+ ii 31)
    himma kabkabu yaqīlu bi ṯāliṯīma(?) yōmi malkuna […], ‘if a star falls on the thirtieth day, then the king…’ (RIH 78/14:14’)

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    9:38 am
  5. page Nominalbildung edited ... Nominalbildung Prefixes {m-}, {t-}, {ʕ-}, {ʿ-}, {y-} (examples Affixes {-n}, /-ānu/; {-…
    ...
    Nominalbildung
    Prefixes
    {m-}, {t-}, {ʕ-},{ʿ-}, {y-} (examples
    Affixes
    {-n}, /-ānu/; {-t}, /-ītu/ and /-ūtu/; {-y}, /-ay/ (fem. nouns in absolute state); (examples below)
    ...
    Nouns from Biconsonantal Roots
    Qvl
    qil+at : {ı̓rt}, /ʔiratu/,{ı͗rt}, /ʾiratu/, ‘breast’
    qil+t : {ı̓št}, /ʔištu/,{ı͗št}, /ʾištu/, ‘fire’ *based
    qīl : {ṣt}, /ṣītu/, ‘cloak’
    Nouns from Triconsonantal Roots
    QvTL
    qutl : {ḫbṯ}, /ḫubṯu/, ‘a low status worker’
    qutl+ān: {u̓lmn}, /ʔulmānu/,{u͗lmn}, /ʾulmānu/, ‘widowhood’
    I-ʔ

    I-ʾ
    qatl : {a̓hbt}, /ʔahbatu/,{a͗hbt}, /ʾahbatu/, ‘love’
    qatl+ānu : {a̓byn}, /ʔabyānu/,{a͗byn}, /ʾabyānu/, ‘destitute, poor’
    II-n qitl : {gt}, /gittu/, ‘agricultural production center, estate, farm’
    ...
    qatl : {a̓p}, /ʔappu/{a͗p}, /ʾappu/ < *ʔanpu,*ʾanpu, ‘nose, nostril,
    II-w qatl+at : {ynt}, /yōnatu/ < *yawnatu (RS1.001:1)
    ...
    qatlān : {u̓šn}, /ʔōšānu/{u͗šn}, /ʾōšānu/ or /ʔūšānu//ʾūšānu/ or /ʔūšanu//ʾūšanu/ (RS 2.[003]+
    II-y qatl : {ll}, /lêlu/, ‘night’ (RS 1.001:12)
    ...
    qayl : {ʕnm}, /ʕênêma/,{ʿnm}, /ʿênêma/, ‘eyes,’ n.m.dual.oblique
    ...
    iv 22’)
    II-ʔ

    II-ʾ
    qitl+at : {rı̓mt}, /riʔmatu/,{rı͗mt}, /riʾmatu/, ‘lyre’ (RS
    ...
    iii 4ʹ)
    {rı̓šh}, /raʔšihu/,

    {rı͗šh}, /raʾšihu/,
    ‘(on) his
    ...

    qatal plural: {ra̓šm}, /raʔašīma/,{ra͗šm}, /raʾašīma/, n.m.pl.oblique (RS
    ...
    iii 42ʹ)
    {ṯı̓ṭ}, /ṯaʔṭu/,

    {ṯı͗ṭ}, /ṯaʾṭu/,
    ‘mud’ (RS
    ...
    qall+at : {a̓mt}, /ʔammat-/,{a͗mt}, /ʾammat-/, ‘elbow, cubit’
    qall : {gg}, /gaggu/, ‘roof’ (RS 2.[004]+ i 32ʹ)
    qull : {mḫ}, /muḫḫu/, ‘brain’ > ‘success, excitement’ (RS 2.[004]+ i 38ʹ)
    ...
    III-w/y qatl : {šby}: /šabyu/, ‘captive’
    QvTvL
    ...
    of qatl: {ra̓šm}, /raʔašīma/,{ra͗šm}, /raʾašīma/, n.m.pl.oblique (RS
    ...

    qvtvl+at : {šʕrt}, /šaʕartu/,{šʿrt}, /šaʿartu/, ‘wool(en garment)’
    n.B. Huehnergard (UVST, 183) points out that there are two nouns of the form qv1tl that expand to qv1tv1l in Ugaritic.
    qātil : {sı̓d}, /sāʔidu/,{sı͗d}, /sāʾidu/, ‘master (<
    {ṯpṭ}: /ṯāpiṭu/, ‘judge’ (cf. BH šōpêṭ)
    II-h qutal + t : {ḏrt}, /ḏûrat-/, ‘vision (i.e. dream)’ (RS 2.[003]+ iii 47)
    II-ʔII-ʾ qatal : {ṯa̓r}, /ṯaʔaru/,{ṯa͗r}, /ṯaʾaru/, ‘blood relationship’
    ...
    i 15)
    II-ʔ

    II-ʾ
    qatal + t : {pa̓mt}, /paʔamatu/,{pa͗mt}, /paʾamatu/, ‘time’ (RS
    III-w qatal : {pnwh}, /panawihu/, ‘before him’ (< to his face, with preposition {l}) (RS 2.[014]+ 1.3 i 6)
    ...
    qatul : {a̓ḫ}, /ʔaḫû/{a͗ḫ}, /ʾaḫû/ < ʔaḫuwa?ʾaḫuwa?
    III-w/y qatil ? : {ṣp}, /ṣapî/ (genitive), ‘in the gaze (of her eyes)’ (RS 2.[003]+ iii 45)
    III-y qatal + t : {mnt}, /manâtu/, /manatu/, /manêtu/, ‘portion’ (RS 2.[004]+ i 32ʹ)
    ...
    qarrādu, nomen professionalis: {qrd}, /qarrādu/, ‘hero’ (RS 2.[014]+ iii 14ʹ)
    qittalu + ānu : {škrn}, /šikkarānu/ (RS 2.[004]+ i 30ʹ)
    ...
    qattil : {ʕwr}, /ʕawwiru/,{ʿwr}, /ʿawwiru/, ‘blind man’
    QvTvLL
    qatull + at: {hmlt}, /hamullatu/, ‘hoard’ (RS 2.[014]+ iii 28ʹ)
    ...
    at +ānu {ʕqltn}, /ʕaqallatānu/,{ʿqltn}, /ʿaqallatānu/, ‘the twisted
    qutull + at {bnwt}, /bunuwwatu/, ‘creatures, offspring’ (RS 2.[004]+ i 24ʹ; RS 24.244:62)
    QvTvLāL
    qatalāl +at : {nhmmt}, /nahamāmatu/, ‘sleep’ < N-H/W-M (RS 2.[003]+ i 32)
    Prefixes
    ʔQTL
    ʔaqtl
    ʾQTL
    ʾaqtl
    : {a̓gzr}, /ʔagzaru/,{a͗gzr}, /ʾagzaru/, ‘someone who
    ...
    (RS 2.002:23)
    ʔaqtl

    ʾaqtl
    : {a̓škr}, /ʔaškaru/,{a͗škr}, /ʾaškaru/, ‘drinking group’
    ...
    (RS 24.258:15)
    ʔuqtl

    ʾuqtl
    : {u̓ṣbʕth}, /ʔuṣbaʕātihu/,{u͗ṣbʿth}, /ʾuṣbaʿātihu/, ‘fingers,’ n.f.pl.suffixal
    ...
    iv 16’)
    ʔuqtl

    ʾuqtl
    +at : {u̓dmʕth}, /ʔudmaʕātuhu/,{u͗dmʿth}, /ʾudmaʿātuhu/, ‘his tears,’
    ...
    28)
    I-y ʔiqtlʾiqtl + ān : {ı̓tnn}, /ʔitnānu/,{ı͗tnn}, /ʾitnānu/, ‘gift at marriage’ <*ʔîtanānu <*ʔiytanānu?<*ʾîtanānu <*ʾiytanānu? √Y-T-N(RS 24.244:76)
    III-y ʔaqtlnʾaqtln : {a̓lı̓yn}, /ʔalʔiyānu/,{a͗lı͗yn}, /ʾalʾiyānu/, < √L-ʔ-Y,√L-ʾ-Y, ‘Most High,’
    ...
    epithet of BaʕluBaʿlu (RS 3.367 iv 28’)
    ʔaqtll

    ʾaqtll
    : {a̓rbdd}, /ʔarbadida/(?),{a͗rbdd}, /ʾarbadida/(?), ‘repose, calmness’
    šQTL
    ...
    coils’ < L-ṭL-Ṭ ‘to roll
    II/III šqtl : {šmrr}, /šamriru/, ‘poison’ < M-R-R (RS 24.244:4)
    mQTL
    ...
    I-y/w and II/III m(q)ll : {mdd}, /mōdadu/, ‘beloved’ (RS 2.[014]+ iii 38ʹ)
    I-y/w mqtl+t : {mṯbt}, /mōṯabatu/, ‘dwelling’ (RS 2.002:19 plural)
    I-ʔI-ʾ mqtl+t : {mı̓zrt}, /maʔzaratu/,{mı͗zrt}, /maʾzaratu/, ‘girded cloak’
    I-n mqtl : {mbk}, /mabbaku/ < *manbaku, ‘headwaters’ (RS 24.244:3)
    II-y mq(t)l : {mšr}, /mašīru/, ‘song’ (RS 2.[014]+ iii 5)
    II-y mqtl : {mrym}, /maryamu/, ‘height’ n.m.s.genitive (RS 2.[014]+ iv 1)
    ...
    ‘resting place’ √N-W-ḫ√N-W-Ḫ (RS 3.367
    ...
    √D-W-B < *ḏ-W-B*Ḏ-W-B (RS 2.002:34)
    II-w mq(t)l+t : {mddth}, /madūdatahu/, < √dwd ‘his beloved’ (RS 2.[003]+ ii 50)
    II-w/y mq(t)l+t : {mknt}, /makānatu/, < K-N, ‘place, establishment’ (RS 2.[003]+ i 11)
    ...
    I-n/III-y mqtl+t : maqtalat: {mnqt} manqayat > /manqât/? ‘acquittal’ (RS 18.140:16); alternatively, one could explain this noun as a D-stem participle mvnaqqiy(a)tu > /munaqqîtu/?
    III-w mqtl+ān : {mswnh}, /muswānahu/, ‘his army camp’ (RS 2.[003]+ iii 21)
    ...
    mqtl : {mʕn}, /maʕnâ/,{mʿn}, /maʿnâ/, ‘response’ √ʕ-N-Y√ʿ-N-Y (RS 2.[014]+ iv 5)
    III-ʔ

    III-ʾ
    mqtl+(a)t : {mṯpı̓t}?,{mṯpı͗t}?, uncertain vocalization and meaning /maṯpaʔtu//maṯpaʾtu/ (RS 11.858:
    tQTL
    taqtilu : {tʕḏr}, /taʕḏiru/,{tʿḏr}, /taʿḏiru/, ‘assistance’
    I-w : {tsm}, /tōsVmu/, ‘beauty’ (RS 2.[003]+ iii 42) Cf. Aqhaqtu ysmsm, ‘dashing.’
    II-ʔII-ʾ tqtlt : {tlı̓yt}, /talʔiyat-/,{tlı͗yt}, /talʾiyat-/, ‘triumph, victory’
    ...
    tqtl+t : {ta̓nt}, /taʔnatu/{ta͗nt}, /taʾnatu/ > [taʔanatu],[taʾanatu], ‘conversings’ (RS
    ...
    24ʹ) cf. {tu̓nt}{tu͗nt}
    (Q)TL
    I-y til+at : {šnt}, /šinatu/, ‘sleep,’ < √Y-Š-N (RS 2.[003]+ i 33)
    ...
    ‘venom’ < Y-ḥ-M,Y-Ḥ-M, ‘heat’ (RS
    Nouns with Reduplicated Root Consonants
    qtqt or qlql?: {qdqd}, /qadqadu/, ‘top of the head’
    qlql: {kbkb}, /kabkabu/, ‘star’ (cf. Akkadian kakkabu/kabkabu)
    ...
    /ḥamḥamatu/, ‘conception’ √ḥ-M-M√Ḥ-M-M
    qtltl: {ysmsm}, /yasamsVm-/, ‘the dashing thing (back of a donkey?)’ (RS 3.322+ ii 11)
    qtltl+at: {ysmsmt}, /yasamsVmata/, ‘beautiful things?’ (CAT 1.17 ii 42)

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    9:29 am
  6. page Nominal Declension edited ... There are some nouns, particularly those bearing a nominal suffix containing a long vowel (e.g…
    ...
    There are some nouns, particularly those bearing a nominal suffix containing a long vowel (e.g., -ān, -īt) that have a diptotic singular system: -u nominative, -a oblique; c.f. (Liverani 1963, 131-160); and (Huehnergard 1987, 299).
    Cf. (Huehnergard 1987, 298) who posits that the dual was /i/ and the plural was /a/.
    ...
    iii 18 pʕny /paʕnayya/,pʿny /paʿnayya/, “my feet.”
    ...
    case vowel: ksủksu͗ ṯbth, ‘the
    ...
    dwelling’ (nominative); ksỉksı͗ mlkh, ‘his
    Cases:
    Nominative:
    ...
    Predicate in a nominative predicate phrase
    Genitive:
    ...
    yamma lê kussaʔihu,kussaʾihu, ‘drive Yammu
    Unmarked vocative
    Various Usage:
    Possession
    Origin
    Adjectival genitive, ẚṯta͗ṯt ṣdqh, /ʔaṯṯata/ʾaṯṯata ṣidqihu/, ‘his
    Subjective genitive, ‘the fear of children is the fear of monsters’
    Objective genitive, ‘the fear of children is the fear of monsters’
    Genitive of identification
    ...
    ḫpn d ỉqnỉ,ı͗qnı͗, /ḫupanu dū ʔiqnaʔi/,ʾiqnaʾi/, ‘a ḫpn-garment
    Accusative:
    Direct object of a transitive verb
    ...
    Adjectives are inflected like nouns and agree with their referent whether attributive or predicative; e.g. malku rabbu.
    Unusual Nouns
    bt and ỉlı͗l have standard
    ...
    bhtm and ỉlhnm
    ẚmt
    ı͗lhnm
    a͗mt
    only has
    ...
    “dummy” consonant ẚmhta͗mht
    kndwm may be the plural of knd
    For a similar expansion, cf. nhmmt.
    ...
    /a/ (Liverani 1963); (Huehnergard1963; Huehnergard 1987, 299).
    ẚḫ,

    a͗ḫ,
    ‘brother;’ singular
    ...
    forms be ʔaḫḫû-?);ʾaḫḫû-?); cf. (Pardee 2004b, 33-4); (Tropper33-4; Tropper 2000, 51,
    ...
    176, 219, 338); (van338; van Soldt 1991, 403n9); (Huehnergard403n9; Huehnergard 1987, 273).
    Some forms show vowel assimilation, others show “historically correct” a.k.a. morpho-phonemic writings.
    S
    ...
    absol.
    constr./pron.
    {ủḫ}, /ʔuḫû/; {ẚḫy}, /ʔaḫûya/
    {ủḫy}, /ʔuḫûya/
    {ẚḫm}, /ʔaḫāma/?
    {ẚḫm}, /ʔaḫḫūma/
    {u͗ḫ}, /ʾuḫû/; {a͗ḫy}, /ʾaḫûya/
    {u͗ḫy}, /ʾuḫûya/
    {a͗ḫm}, /ʾaḫāma/?
    {a͗ḫm}, /ʾaḫḫūma/

    Genitive
    absol.
    pronom.
    {ỉḫy}, /ʔiḫîya/; {ẚḫ}, /ʔaḫî/; {ẚḫy}, /ʔaḫîya/
    {ỉḫh}, /ʔiḫîhu/
    {ı͗ḫy}, /ʾiḫîya/; {a͗ḫ}, /ʾaḫî/; {a͗ḫy}, /ʾaḫîya/
    {ı͗ḫh}, /ʾiḫîhu/

    Accusative
    absol.
    {ẚḫy}, /ʔaḫâya/; {ẚḫy}, /ʔaḫâya/
    {ẚḫym}, /ʔaḫḫîyama/
    {a͗ḫy}, /ʾaḫâya/; {a͗ḫy}, /ʾaḫâya/
    {a͗ḫym}, /ʾaḫḫîyama/
    (1 c.s. + Enclit.)enclit.)
    (view changes)
    9:21 am

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